PLAI – Research steps 1 – Conducting internal environmental analysis 2 – Conducting external environmental analyses 3 – Determining two main problem areas 4 – Determining main cause of each problem area 5 – Developing possible solutions/changes to each cause 6 – Deciding on best solutions/ changes in each area Standard Elements of PLAI Report Cover Title page Summary Preface Table of contents Glossary (List of symbols) l.
Introduction 2. Company description and research project definition 2 2 Standard elements of PLAI Report 3. Internal analysis 4.
External analysis 5. Areas of improvement and possible changes 6.Conclusion and recommendations 7. Critical appraisal List of literature List of fgures List of tables List of abbreviations List of appendices 4 7 9 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 3 1 – Title * clearly legible * concise and relevant * possible subtitle (smaller font size) 2 – Author’s name 3 – Possible illustration * functional * not too colourful or prominent Internal changes – better performance company analysls 0T company x Start John Peters 5 Title page (14 TNR) Title Subtitle Author: Internal changes – better performance (12 TNR) Company analysis of company X Student number:1234567 Class code: FMEIA Learning Arrangement:PLA 1 Lecturer: Drs.
P. J. M Cuypers Institute: Fontys International Business School Course of study: International Marketing Study phase: 1st year Academic year : 2013-2014 Date of completion: 11 December 2013 Place: Venlo, The Netherlands Confidentiality: Yes 6 Goal: orientation on contents : InTormatlon ana selectlon Position : right after the title page Elements of contents: Introduction to company Description of assignment/ObJective of project (Working method [Research design – no sources) Relevant research results Conclusion and 1-2 recommendations Requirements: *No new elements/info (paraphrasing body text) *No direct eferences to sources/chapters. Paragraphs but no subchapters * No introductory text Length: max. 1 page.
Standard elements : Project frame work Explanation of title Description of reader group Division of tasks and words of gratitude Mention of place,date and author’s name I- and We -forms are allowed here 8 laDle 0T contents (IN Contents (Glossary) List of symbols 1. Introduction 2. Company descripton and research project definition Appen01x 1 Appendix 2 + Title 19 Remark: List of appendices (after List of tables) in case of more than 2 appendices. 10 Chapter 1: IntroductionObjectives: – Orientation on organisation of report – Defining and defending project Elements: 0 New info company/industry – leading up to relevance of project. 0 Problem definition/goal + Relevance of project 0 Research plan/method 0 Possible limitations [restrictions report 0 Overall structure of report (+ links) Presentation: * Paragraphs only: One idea – one paragraph * Length: max. 1 page 11 Main body chapters and sub chapters 2. Research project definition – Company problem 2. 1 2.
2 – Main research problem definition 2. – Research assignment definition 2. 4 – Research plan / Plan of action Lay-out chapter 2 a – Title (The same title as in your table of contents) b – Introductory text * printed in italics * info on contents/order of elements in chapter * linking up previous chapter (no link with chapter 1) c – Relevant sub-chapters 2. 1 Company problem * History * Core process * Product/Service range + Industry * Reasons / Definition of company problem 2. 2 Main research problem * Main research question * Related research questions 2. Research assignment definition * Active verbs of instruction + clear aspects/topics. 2. 4 Research plan / Plan of action * most important steps to be taken crucial activities/goals of each step Remarks: 1 – There should be at least two sub-chapters in your chapter 2 – Sub-chapters 2.
2. and 2. 3 can be combined in one sub-chapter. 2 – Give a blank line between sub- chapters 3 – Refer to chapter 2 in the introductory text of chapter 3 Elements of main chapters Literature study: terminology, theories/models, available reports. – Information needs: extensive list of research questions that need to answered.
4 – Desk research plan : WHAT – WHERE – HOW. Limited number of research questions answered. 5 – Field research plan: – Expert interviews WHAT – WHO – HOW – WHEN. Main focus: Unanswered research questions 6 – Results and possible interim conclusions Conclusions and recommendations Interpreting and evaluating research results 2.
Linking up with Problem/Assignment: * Mention research problem definition from chapter 2 * Present your best changes in the internal environment * Use your well-founded arguments/criteria from chapter 5 to account for your decision 3. No new info/arguments – Based on main body 4. Logical arguments and lay-out [order 5. Direct link conclusions – recommendations Recommendations 1 Separate conclusions and recommendations 2 Show clear relationships with conclusions Prov101ng reallstlc, TeaslDle Implementatlon actlvltles * How can these best internal changes be implemented in the organisation? Do not provide more than 3 recommendations 5 Layout: One paragraph – one recommendation Critical appraisal Critical analysis of the research process + research results * Detailed references to unanswered research questions * Pointing out limitations of final results/conclusion * Dealing with criticism in a pro-active way * Pointing out critical bottlenecks in research process No self-critical reflection – No professional attitude of Student Citing references in main body text Reasons: * Verification Further reading option * Level of know-how (literature/ developments) * Giving credit to author / Avoiding plagiarism Position and form in-text citations: 1 – author known: author -date method – books/articles: “….
. ” (Rogers ,2005, p. ) – personal communication: (Hacker, personal communication, 22 March 2006 or Appendix .. ) – web site: (Brink, 2006) 2 – no author: Title – date method (in between brackets) – books/articles: (Preventing coronary heart disease, 2003) – web site;(CancerHelp I-JK, 2002). Citations in main body text Direct: Hillocks (1982) similarly reviews dozens of research findings.
He writes, “The available esearch suggests that teaching by written comment on compositions is generally IneTTectlve” (p. 2 “These resting times provide periods for reflection and permit time for new things to be learned, mastered and brought to fruition” Cones, 1995, pp. 122-3). Indirect: In his conclusion, RaJaratnam (2001, p.
005) points to the possible economic and social costs incurred by a nation, when individuals work ‘out of phase’ with their biological clocks 20 Listing sources in list of literature * Just list the citations used in main body text * Alphabetical order: based on key words only * Transparent lay-out (white spacing + categories optional) Title descriptions: Books: Foley, B. H (2001). E-business strategies. (10th ed.
) New York: McGraw-Hill. Article in Newspaper/Journal: Barlow, D. H.
(2001). Team work at 18M. Journal of Management, 16 October, p.
10. 21 Web page: Rowett, S. (1998) Higher Education for capability: autonomous learning for life and work. Maastricht, the Netherlands: Universiteit Maastricht. Retrieved 8 August 2000 from the World Wide Web: Interviews: Hacker, P. (2007) Interview on staff and style of company X [interview] (Personal communication, 22 March 2006) In case the transcript of the interview is provided in an