Color is defined as “the property possessed by an object of producing different sensations on the eye as a result of the way the object reflects or emits light”. Visible light is a kind of electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation “is a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space”.
There are also other types of electromagnetic radiation like X rays, ultraviolet and infrared light, microwaves and radio waves. All of the forms of electromagnetic radiation make up what is called the “electromagnetic spectrum”. The electromagnetic spectrum is defined as “all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation”. The visible light region is “the very narrow band of wavelengths located to the right of the infrared region and to the left of the ultraviolet region”.
Our eyes are sensitive to only a very narrow band of the visible spectrum. Isaac Newton identified the colors that make up the visible spectrum. Those colors include red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet, also known by the acronym ROYGBIV. In the early twentieth century, light was determined to have a dual wave-particle nature. The cells in our eyes, called cones, are sensitive to the wavelengths that are found in the visible spectrum.
They allow us to see the all the colors of the rainbow: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. We perceive color as a result of light interacting with our eyes. The properties of physical objects can change the way our eyes absorb, reflect and emit light. This changes the way we see objects. Objects don’t actually “have” color, they give off light that “appears” to be a color. This means that color exists only in the mind of the beholder. Chemist, Dr. Goroff, explains that “We see the color of the light that’s reflected, that’s not absorbed.
“Before common era, colors came from rocks and minerals that would be dug up and crushed to create pigments. A chemical gets its color by electrons absorbing energy and becoming excited. “Each element in the periodic table has a unique set of wavelengths it will absorb and emit, so finding the color you want is just a matter of choosing the correct element that emits at that wavelength.”There are three components of color: hue, saturation and luminance. Hue is the dominant wavelength. Saturation is the purity of the color, or how much white is contained in the color.
Luminance is the intensity of lightfourier.eng.hmc.edu/e180/lectures/color1/node28.htmlColors vary in several different ways, including hue (shades of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet), saturation, brightness, and gloss.