Fluorine Moissan discovered fluorine in 1886. It is a chemical element with the symbol F, atomic number 9, 9 electrons and protons, 10 neutrons, and the atomic mass of 19.
Being the lightest halogen, it has one stable isotope, fluorine 19. At standard pressure and temperature, the element is a pale yellow gas as a liquid its a bright yellow. The electrons are located outside the nucleus of the atom. Electrons are organized in such a way that the space between them are inter dispersed. Within this space are distinct distances up to 100,00 times away from the nucleus of the tom.Reactions with fluorine are often sudden or explosive. Many substances are generally regarded as unreactive such as powdered steel, glass fragments, and asbestos fibers. Asbestos fibers are readily consumed by cold fluorine gas.
Wood and even water will burn with flames when subjected to a Jet of fluorine, without the need for a spark. Fluorine will melt at -219. 6 C and boil at -188 C. Fluorine is added to city water supplies in the proportion of about one part per million to help prevent tooth decay.
Sodium fluoride (NaF), stannous (II) fluoride (SnF2) and sodium mono luorophosphates (Na2P03F) all fluorine compounds added to toothpaste, also to help prevent tooth decay. Fluorine is found in nature in the form of calcium fluoride, called fluorite, which forms regular crystals. California has many fluorite deposits. There are also deposits in Alaska and Argentina Fluorine is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements. Until World War II, there was no commercial production of elemental fluorine.
The nuclear bomb project and nuclear energy. Applications, however, made it necessary to produce large quantities.Fluorine and its compounds re used in producing uranium (from the hexafluoride) and more than 100 commercial fluorochemicals, including many high-temperature plastics. Hydrofluoric acid is used to etch light bulbs and other glass. Fluorochlorohydrocarbons are extensively used in air conditioning and refrigeration. Fluorine as a soluble fluoride in drinking water can help prevent dental cavities, but at 2 ppm it may cause mottled enamel in teeth when used by children acquiring permanent teeth.
Elemental fluorine has been studied as a rocket propellant as it has an exceptionally high specific impulse value.