Cloning is the process of asexually producing a group of independent organisms or cells, all genetically identical, from a single ancestor(www.mobot.org/duckweed/cloning-duckweed.htm)
In normal sexual reproduction, sperm cells containing 23 chromosomes (haploid cell) fuse with an egg containing 23 chromosomes as well. They fuse to form a diploid cell which contains46 chromosomes and then divide and develop into an embryo (in humans).
In cloning, an egg with 23 chromosomes is removed from a donor and the chromosomes from the nucleus of the diploid cell of the cell donor are removed and replaced with 46 chromosomes from the donor cell and implanted into the womb. The egg cell starts to replicate and then to make an embryo.
Although this process of cloning can be practised on other types of living organisms, in the long run it can only be beneficial to mankind as it was invented for us by us. This is not to say that other living organisms are not cloned but even when cloned, it is a practice that is used mainly for our advantages.
While a lot of infertile couples tend to use the method of in vitro fertilisation, the opportunity for them to actually have a baby exactly the way they want it and to be able to determine its gender, would be an even greater opportunity. Also in vitro fertilization is not always successful. If cloning could prove 100% a success then a lot of infertile couples would be able to have children at any age.
It certainly would help the medical industry in an even greater number of advantages, as it would improve reconstructive and cosmetic surgery. The surgery could be improved by using real skin and other tissues that will be an exact match for a particular patient. This will cut down the risk of disease and any other associated by this type of surgery. This would in turn allow people to alter their appearances with no side effects and it would become a very big part of the commercial industry benefiting the economy.
People who have died could be reborn and be able to get a second shot at life. Their families and loved ones would be spared emotional loss.
This process could help with research of Leukaemia, Cancer and HIV aids as it would allow different clones to be injected with these diseases and check the effect they have on these organisms. It would further help to separate the gene that causes the disease and possibly eliminate illnesses as well.
Female homosexuals are another group that can benefit well from this process too as they can have children without having to use a donor’s sperm. In other animals, this application would only be practised if it were to benefit mankind as a result. For example, it could be used to increase the number of female cows, which will increase the amount of milk production.
Another benefit of cloning to mankind is the ability to increase life expectancy by therapeutic cloning.
Reversing heart attacks is a process, which takes long since donors scarce. Cloning enables this to be easier. Even bone marrow transplants become easier as the cell of the patient can be cloned to get an identical copy.
In many supermarkets today, a lot of vegetables, which would normally not grow in certain countries can be bought easily. Plants are cloned after genetic (DNA) modification. These fruit and vegetables are then increasingly cloned to make them affordable and also to be able to deal with the demand for them. This allows consumption and greater profits, which in turn boosts our economy.
Animals such as cows will be cloned if not already done so in order to increase milk production. Whilst the best female producing cow will be cloned for their milk, a small number of male cows might also be cloned in order to produce meat. This not only helps to increase the amount of milk and beef produced but also the amount of that will be bought and will cause another economical boost which mankind benefits from.
A lot of women in the world today want to have children but are afraid of the consequences after. They would be able to have a baby exactly the way they want it, maybe identical to a parent or a friend and also not have to carry it for nine whole months as it would be made in a laboratory. No weight gains, stretch marks or the pain of labour.
When I look at all the benefits listed above that I have discussed, the majority of them are only beneficial to mankind. This is because we possess the intelligence and the knowledge as well as enough equipment to use this method to better our lives. Though cloning does pose questions that are related to morality, mankind is already greatly benefiting from this process. It can only be used to make things better though I am not comfortable with its ability to bring back people from the past, as I believe this will have major implications on society. There will be religious and ethical issues that I believe will not be easy to resolve. This idea of cloning and advancement got one disadvantage to mankind as it has caused even more grouping and will probably be one of the other factors that will cause greater political instability.
On top of it all I think in the future all these benefits will only be disastrous for the idea has left mankind thinking unethically and with no value or appreciation of nature. Clones will make all kinds of investigations in the future much harder and will eliminate variation within people. Before anything is done about cloning humans it is necessary to see that this process is irreversible and may in the end prove very unbeneficial to mankind and threaten the existence of the earth.