CHILDHOOD a given topic which enables an overview




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This question was chosen because of health concerns of seeing teenager’s smoke, smoking can affect their lungs at an early age. Based on WHO (WHO, 2008,2009) report which indicates that tobacco use is very severe with an estimation showing that there about one billion smokers worldwide (WHO,2010) however about 6 million people die from tobacco use each year (WHO,2009a). Moreover, recent studies seem to suggest that adult smoking habits are formed during adolescence stage (Warren, Jones, Eriksen & Asma,2006). This led to this research in order to inform through education about the interventions available to young adolescents engaged in smoking habits. The essence of public health in relation to this topic is to create awareness of the health risks and diseases associated with smoking and its prevention. In every teenage smoker, they are more likely to wheeze and cough three times more than an average teenager who does not smoke. A huge number of Adolescents who smoke, at age 18 years of age and older are likely to have symptoms of heart disease.


When one needs to understand when the information is desired and also understand how to locate and use to use the information effectively. It is b3elieved that information in the world doubles every two years. This is called Information Literacy also known to be when certain skills are useful for finding. As you can see this is very important because without it finding information would be very hard. Evidence-based public health gives out information on what a person can do which will definitely work because it is scientifically proven. This is helpful as it gives you a more certain chance. A literature review is classified as a report about the evolution of information that can be seen in the selected part of the study. A literature review is classified as a critical analysis and also a summary of research on a given topic which enables an overview for beginners or new people to a topic. My literature review topic is important because smoking kills and it is harmful therefore it needs to be educated.

Search strategy

I used information from “Effectiveness of school-based smoking intervention in middle school students of Linzhi Tibetan and Guangzhou Han ethnicity in China” as it had a lot of useful information which was related towards the topic I chose. As I created my PIO framework I developed search keywords such as “(teen* OR child* “young people”: OR adolescent) and (“health education” OR “health campaign”). The PICO stands for population, intervention, comparison and outcome; this helps to explain in detail about a topic. When I searched for the article I wanted to use I got 687 search results, first fifteen in publication dates changed from 1973 to 2017 then from 2007 in the second search filter sauce type academic journals, 259 picked health educations. I found 79 search results. I used these filters to enable me to get a more certain article related to my topic.

Simple Appraisal of one article

The aim of a research study is to educate people about smoking and give a most detailed and accurate information about the key statistics of smoking. The kind of study used in this article is a cross-sectional study; the aim of this is to spread awareness of how harmful the risk of smoking can be. This article was produced in China in January 2014. The people involved in the article are, ‘Long Chen’ who was the present Co-first author, School of public health, Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Sun Yat-sen University in China, then there is ‘Yan Chen’, School of public health, Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Sun Yat-sen University in China and Guangdong institute, for Disease Control and prevention Guangdong province in China. Yan Chen is the co-first author. Then there’s Yuantao Hao, School of public health, Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Sun Yat-sen University in China, a Correspondence to H. Yantao which is a school of Public Health. Also, Jing Gu, School of public health, Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Sun Yat-sen University in China, another participant is Yan Guo, School of public health, Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Sun Yat-sen University in China. Lastly, Wenhua Ling, School of public health, Department of Nutrition, Sun Yat-sen University in China. The information from this was gathered by looking for the keywords outside the article and analysing the whole article. In the article, there are keys mentioned such as “smoking is bad”, “no smoking is allowed in school” and “cigarettes are impolite”. The limitations of the study are, for instance, there are only four schools and two study sites so it will have an impact on the generalization of study findings. The second point is that most of the schools had their differences aside as it was related to the intervention. The third reason is that the schools were school-based evaluations and interventions being the reason that there is low support and in need of supporting messages around the schools and in the environments. The fourth reason is that the packages in the Intervention were gathered together which made it difficult to spot the usefulness of every single individual intervention activity. Lastly, it is about the time gap between the first collected data from the baseline and the second one the year after. The strengths of the study are to educate people and give awareness to the smokers about the risks towards them. Another strength of the study is the key statistics which has a lot of research and will help students when researching. Knowledge information centers to provide health education interventions to reduce smoking. It is for adolescents to gain a useful insight into discouraging adolescents from forming the habits of smoking. Furthermore, to create awareness of the risk and dangers caused by smoking. Providing quit smoking centers. Physical activity centers where adolescents can engage in sporting activities to prevent smoking. The authors identify how important the research is because of how dangerous smoking can be, harmful to the person and others around them. Also, they identified how important the research is because smoking is easily influenced. The authors also realized that Adolescents do smoke a lot as they are influenced by their friends and in other cases from home. Peer pressure allows teenagers to feel uncomfortable and forced to do something they feel like they’re being given a choice but really, they are being forced to do it. Nicotine is addictive and inside cigarettes, as the adolescents start to smoke their body becomes dependent on it and feel as if they need more; that’s how the majority of smokers started smoking at a young age. The study suggests that adolescents smoking has increased and the starting age of smoking has increased. They recommend reducing the prevalence of tobacco use. Also, that Supporting young adolescent to gain educational awareness of the health risk and diseases that may affect them in later life. Proving therapy or counselling to improve mental and social health among adolescents. Alerting the teenagers of infection and prevention. Effective activities such as sports activities to prevent influences from peer groups.


Searching for scientific literature is important to the public health because it educates them to be aware of how harmful and dangerous smoking can have an impact on a human’s life and people around them.


Reference list

1.    Author: Elsa Loftis, released: 07/20/2015, title: “what is information literacy?”, name of the website:, link:

2.    Chen, L, Chen, Y, Hao, Y, Gu, J, Guo, Y, & Ling, W 2014, Effectiveness of school-based smoking intervention in middle school students of Linzhi Tibetan and Guangzhou Han ethnicity in China, Addictive Behaviors, 39, 1, pp. 189-195, CINAHL Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 November 2017. (Permalink):,shib&db=ccm&AN=103997169&site=ehost-live