Child labour in IndiaIntroduction Child labour can be defined as employment ofthe children which affects their childhood, studying or physical, mental orsocial harm. This practice is considered exploitative. According to Parvathamma et al, Child labourinvolves at least one of these; affects children’s physical, mental oremotional well-being; involves intolerable abuse, such as child slavery, childtrafficking, forced labour; activites prevents children from going to school.12. Not all work done by children comes under child labour like children inhelping parents and learning.3 United nationschildren’s fund (UNICEF) and International labor organization (ILO) estimated168 million children aged 5-17 wordwide were involved in chid labor in 2013 4.According to Census data, there are over 82 lakh child labourers(aged between5-14 years) in India.
5 Child labour is one of the major concern across theworld. Approx 60% of the boys and girls were estimated as child laborers.Agriculture sector is known to be main engagement followed by fisheries,aquaculture, live stock and forestry8. Numbers of child workers are more indeveloping countries (96%) like Asia, Africa and south America.
Asia have 61%of child workers (age between 5 and 14) where as Africa has 32% and latinAmerica 7%. Asia has the highest number of child workers; Africa has thehighest prevalence of child labour (40%). 9 Child labour is prohibited bylegislation across the world 2.
In india child labour is addressed by ChildAct 1986 and National Child labour project which prohibits the employment ofchildren below the age of 14 years in hazardous occupations like working incircus, beedi-making, carpet-weaving, cloth printing, Dhabas, teastalls as wellas domestic workers, etc.67 There are so many causes that can lead to thechild labour. Amongst them poverty, low aspiration, huge demand of unskilledlabours, illiteracy, early marriages, High cost of education, increasedpopulation are some major factors responsible or encouraged child to belabourers.
1213 Increased population and poverty are the biggest reason ofchild labour in developing countries where poor family have to struggle forsome basic requirements and that’s why they encourage their child to work andhelp the family. An ILO study shows that about 85 per cent of the total childlabourers in India are forced work to supplement the income of theirfamilies about 75 per cent of parentsare allow their children to work from the economic point of view about 50 percent of parents feel that the income earned by their children is essential forthe maintenance of their families about 44 per cent of the families have theirown cultural and traditional beliefs in maintaining and continuing their familyoccupations about 70 per cent of childlabourers want to continue their present job even if they are given the optionto leave them (Pandey, 2001). Child labour causes numberof health issues as majority of child labour observed in dangerous or hazardousoccupations. These children actually start work during very young age for longhours with little or no payment. They work in dangerous or hazardousenvironment, which causes fatal or non-fatal injuries.
For example children involvein carrying heavy loads which affects their postures or musculo-skeletaldevelopment. Children are more vulnerable and susceptible than adultsbiologically as they are in their developing condition physically as well asmentally mentioned in surendra kumar et al 1011. Child labour is also obstaclein nation’s development. Development of nation or society depends on the young generationand if they are in problem nation is indirectly in the problem. For overcoming child labour government had donemany things. Government has implemented different acts like factory act, minesact, child labour act, Right to free and Compulsory Education Act whichprevents child to be labourers. Also there are different NGOs working in thisarea and help government.
15MethodsDifferent kind of surveys can be done for study child labourhow and where it is present more also what can be the reason behind childlabour presence. All these criteria can be figure out by analyzing differentarticles available on websites like ILO, UNISEF, WHO, etc. Issues orconsequences of child labour can analyse by evaluating the children ofdifferent areas and can compare the normal child with the labour child. For effective systems major awareness campaignsshould taken place.ConclusionIn India one in every 11 children is working. 80% of theworking children are from rural area.
More than half of the 5.5 million working children are mostly infive states—Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.As per an analysis of census data by non-governmental organization CRY (ChildRights and You)child labour has beendecreasing at rate of 2.
2% per year from 2001 to 2011.17 Primaryhealth care approach, social political and technological intervention, properlegislation and law require for current situation and for betterment of thechild workers. So, by implemented interdisplinary approaches decreasing rate ofchild labour will increase.References1 What is child labour? International Labour Organisation.2012. Available at: http://www.ilo.
org/ipec/facts/langen/index.htm. AccessedDec 11, 2014.
2 Parvathamma, G. L. “Child Labour in India–A Conceptualand Descriptive Study.” International Journal of Humanities andSocial Science Invention 4.1 (2015): 23-32.3 Khakshour, Ali, et al. “Child labor facts in theworldwide: A review article.” International Journal of Pediatrics 3.
1.2(2015): 467-473.4 To eliminate child labour, attack it at its roots,UNICEF says. UNICEF. 2013.5 “Statistics of Child Labour in India State Wise.” Savethe Children India, www.
savethechildren.in/articles/statistics-of-child-labour-in-india-state-wise.6 Bag, Amartya. “What are the Laws related to child labourin India.
” IPleaders, 13 June 2017,blog.ipleaders.in/laws-related-child-labour-india/. 7 “ILO.” HazardousWork List: India, 2 June 2016, www.
ilo.org/newdelhi/areasofwork/child-labour/legal-framework/WCMS_486746/lang–en/index.htm. 8 ILO good practiceguide for addressing child labour in fisheries and aquaculture: Policy andpractice preliminary version international labour organization. 20119 ILO. Child Labor: How the challenge is beingmet. Int Labor Rev. 1997;136:233–5710 Roggero, Paola, et al.
“The health impact of childlabor in developing countries: evidence from cross-country data.” Americanjournal of public health 97.2 (2007): 271-275.
11 Yadav, Surendra Kumar, and Gowri Sengupta.”Environmental and occupational health problems of child labour: SomeIssues and Challenges for Future.” Journal of Human Ecology28.2(2009): 143-148.12 Victor. “Child Labour: Meaning, Causes, Effects,Solutions.” Important India, 24 Feb. 2017, www.
importantindia.com/25558/child-labour-meaning-causes-effects-solution/.13 Tanwar, Ravinder. “Child Labor in India- Causes &Consequences.” SSB Interview Tips & Coaching | SSBCrack, 5 July2015, www.ssbcrack.com/2015/07/child-labor-in-india-causes-consequences.
html.14 “Child Labour Act: Govt allows under-14 children to workin non-Hazardous family enterprises.” Firstpost, 13 May 2015, www.firstpost.com/india/child-labour-act-govt-allows-under-14-children-to-work-in-non-hazardous-family-enterprises-2242120.html.15 Tanwar, Ravinder.
“Child Labor in India- Causes &Consequences.” SSB Interview Tips & Coaching | SSBCrack, 5 July2015, www.ssbcrack.com/2015/07/child-labor-in-india-causes-consequences.html.16 Srivastava, Kalpana. “Child Labour Issues andChallenges.
” Industrial Psychiatry Journal 20.1 (2011):1–3. PMC. Web. 28 Jan. 2018.17 Masoodi, Ashwaq.
“10 alarming statistics on child labourin India.” Http://Www.livemint.com/, Livemint, 12 June 2015,www.livemint.