Chapter 2Design and Methodology This chapter included discussions ofthe research design, locale and population, data gathering procedure, datagathering tool, validity and reliability of the research instrument and thestatistical treatment to be used in the study.Research DesignThe descriptive method of research wasused in this study. The descriptive method involves the description, recording,analysis, and interpretation of the present nature, composition or process ofphenomena. The focus is on prevailing conditions, or how a person, group, orthing behaves or functions in the present. It often involves some type ofcomparison or contrast (Shuttleworth, 2008). Hence this design was utilized inthis study for it aimed to assessedthe utilization of play-based approaches in thepublic elementary schools of La Trinidad District, Schools Division of Benguet.The researcher made use of a surveyquestionnaire as the research tool, together with informal interviews andobservation.
The informal interviews and observation as well as theresearcher’s experiences were used to clarify and reinforce the findings ofthis study.Population and Locale of the StudyThe study was conducted in the 23publicelementary schools of La Trinidad District, Schools Division of Benguet duringthe school year 2017-2018.Total enumeration was employed where all the 23schoolheads and 38kindergarten teachers served as respondents of this study.
Table A Distributionof Respondents Schools School Heads Teachers 1. Alapang Camp Dangwa Elementary School 1 1 2. AlnoKadore Elementary School 1 1 3. Ambiong Elementary School 1 2 4. Bahong Elementary School 1 1 5. Balili Elementary School 1 2 6. Balukas Elementary School 1 1 7.
Bekkel Elementary School 1 2 8. Benguet SPED Center 1 1 9. Bineng Elementary School 1 1 10.
Bodiweng Elementary School 1 1 11.Buyagan Elementary School 1 4 12.La Trinidad Central School 1 5 13.Lamtang Elementary School 1 1 14.
Lamut Elementary School 1 1 15.Longlong Elementary School 1 1 16.Lubas Elementary School 1 2 17.Pagal Elementary School 1 1 18.Pico Elementary School 1 1 19.Puguis Elementary School 1 4 20.Tacdian Elementary School 1 2 21.
Talinggoroy Elementary School 1 1 22.Tawang Elementary School 1 1 23.Wangal Elementary School 1 1 TOTAL 23 38 Source: Division Planning Section 2017Data Gathering Tool In gatheringthe data needed in the study, the questionnaire was the main instrument used. This wassupplemented by informal interviews, observations, participation, and librarytechniques. In using these tools of gathering data, they were all focus on obtaininganswers to the specific problems of the study.
These were used to clarify andaugment the data gathered through the questionnaire.A questionnaire is a formprepared and distributed to secure responses to certain questions. A generalrule is that these questions are factual and intended to obtain informationabout condition or practices of which the respondents are presumed to haveknowledge. Thefirst part of the questionnaire was a letter to the respondents followed byqueries on the following topics:(1) What are the differenttypes of play used in play-based approaches; (2) What are benefits of play-basedapproaches to the learners; (3) What are barriers encountered in the effectiveutilization of play-based approaches; and, (4) What are needed measures toaddress the barriers encountered in the effective utilization of play-basedapproaches.Reliabilityand Validity of the Research Instrument To establish the validity of the research instrument, the questionnaire constructed based from previousresearches and informal interviews related to the study was shown toresearcher’s adviser for comments and suggestions to further enhance the datagathering tool Onthe other hand, its reliability was determined through the use of theKuder-Richardson Formula 21 (Subong, 2006) after a pretest to 5 school headsand 5kindergarten teachers who were not part of the actual number ofrespondents. It yielded as index score of 0.
95 which indicates that thequestionnaire is very highly reliable.rk-R = Ns² – m (N-m) s² (N-1)Where:N = number of respondentsm = means² = variance1 = constant Data Gathering Procedure Before floating the questionnaire,letter of request to administer questionnaire was secured from the Dean of theGraduate School. Afterwards, permission was obtained from the Schools DivisionSuperintendent of the participating schools. The researcher personallydistributed the questionnaire to the target respondents. The researcher had topersonally administer the questionnaire in order to explain to the respondentsthe proper accomplishment of the questionnaire. It was during the distributionand retrieval of the questionnaire that some interviews were conducted.
StatisticalTreatment of the Data The data gatheredin the study were tallied, classified, tabulated and subjected to the weightedmean and ranking. ?f WM = n Where: WM= Weighted mean ? = summation f =frequency n = total number of cases The responses were treated with athree-point scale with their respective statistical limit and descriptiveequivalents.1. Types ofplay used in play-based approaches NUMERICAL VALUE STATISTICAL LIMITS DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT SYMBOL 3 2.
35 – 3.00 Effective E 2 1.68 – 2.34 Not Effective NE 1 1.00 – 1.67 Undecided U 2. Benefitsof play-based approaches to the learners NUMERICAL VALUE STATISTICAL LIMITS DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT SYMBOL 3 2.
35 – 3.00 Highly Beneficial HB 2 1.68 – 2.34 Moderately Beneficial MB 1 1.00 – 1.67 Least Beneficial LB 3. Barriersencountered in the effective utilization of play-based approaches NUMERICAL VALUE STATISTICAL LIMITS DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT SYMBOL 3 2.
35 – 3.00 Very Serious VS 2 1.68 – 2.34 Moderately Serious MS 1 1.00 – 1.
67 Least Serious LS 4. Measuresto address the barriers encountered in the effective utilization of play-basedapproaches NUMERICAL VALUE STATISTICAL LIMITS DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT SYMBOL 3 2.35 – 3.00 Highly Needed HN 2 1.68 – 2.34 Moderately Needed MN 1 1.00 – 1.67 Least Needed LN In conclusion, for the difference ofresponses among the school heads and kindergarten teachers, independent samplet-test (Subong, 2006) was applied with the formula of: X? – X2 t= ?X?² + ?X2² 1 + 1n1+ n2 – 2 n1n2 Where: X? = mean responses of the first groupX2 =mean responses of the second group?X? =summation of the processed responses of the firstgroup?X2 =summation of the processed responsesof the secondgroup?X?²=summation of the squares of the processed responses of the firstgroup?X2²=summationf the squares of the processed responses of thesecond groupn1=number of respondents of the first groupn2=number of respondents of the second group