Category five vehiclesincludes mopeds that have the characteristic of emitting no CO2emissions and can travel of at least 30 km betweencharges. The grant considered forthe motorcycles covers 20% of the purchase price for these vehicles, up to amaximum of GBP 1,500. This category of vehicles includes Torrot Muvi City, UGBEST e-City, and Vmoto Super Soco TS1200R. Category six vehiclesincludes vans that have the characteristic of emitting less than 75 g CO2emissions per km of drive and can travel of at least 16 km between charges. The grant considered forthe motorcycles covers 20% of the purchase price for these vehicles, up to amaximum of GBP 8,000. There are also incentives provided in the forms offree parking and access to bus lanes 19.
The HRSInfrastructure Grants Scheme funds projects via two streams 43.In the first stream, up to 100% of the eligible costs for 6-8 HRSs is providedto upgrade those HRSs from demonstration projects to commercial HRSs. Thebudget for this stream is about GBP 2 million 43.In the second stream, up to 60% of eligible costs is provided for 4-7 HRSs with a budget of about GBP 3.5 million.The applicant has to match the remaining cost from other sources 43.
The UK government also provides incentives fordevelopment of three types of EV charging facilities as explained in thefollowing 45.· Electric Vehicle Homecharge Scheme (EVHS): providing funding for the installation ofcharging points at houses all over the UK (covering up to 75% of the cost ofinstalling and capped at GBP 500) 45 46.· WorkplaceCharging Scheme (WCS): providing funding for theinstallation of charging points with a limit of 20 charging points across allsites for each application (capped at GBP300 for each socket) 47.· On-streetResidential Chargepoint Scheme (ORCS): providing funding forlocal authorities to install an on-streetresidential charging points (covering up to 75% of the cost of installing thecharging point and providing a specific parking space and capped atGBP 7,500) 48.
Norwayalongside Denmark are the two countries in the world with the highest new carpurchase taxes 9. Generally, incentives in Norway for supportingthe deployment of EVs are stronger than incentives in countries such as France,Japan, and the USA 9 which led to Norwayhaving the highest electric car penetration among all countries 19.FCV purchases inNorway are exempt from purchase tax (whichcan be as high as 100 % for petrol cars) and also zero value added tax (valued at 25 %) 51.FCV owners can also enjoy low annual road-tax (10 % of normal value), freepublic parking, access to bus/taxi-lanes and free passing through toll-roads 51.
The same incentives are also available for BEVs 19.However, the Government and regional politicians have started to reduce thebenefits for BEVs and warned that thesesupports would be gradually phased out 51.Development of HRSs in Norway has benefited from government support. The HyNorproject in Norway was a joint industry initiative to demonstrate the real-lifeimplementation of a hydrogen energy infrastructure across Norway 52. Thisproject was a public-private partnership 53. Norwayalso provides public funding for deployment of fast-charging stations every 50km (on average) on main roads and at the same time contributes to deploymentincentives for public chargers 19.
Uno-X Hydrogenhas the target to build 20 hydrogen refueling stations in Norway by 2020through H2-20 project 55.In Norway, there are also regionaltargets for the number of FCVs and HRSs. Oslo-Akershus region targets to haveat least 350 FCVs by the end of 2018. By 2025 the region is also targeting tohave a sufficiently established HRS network which forms a basis for a nationaland Nordic infrastructure for FCVs. The target for the number of FCVs will be over 10,000 56.Norway’s target for the number of EVs is50,000 by 2018 22.
The government of Denmark subsidizes the purchaseof FCVs by exempting the purchases from registration taxes 57. Theimposed taxes are usually up to 180% of the vehicle price 57. This taxexemption means that the government provides indirect support of more than EUR 23,000for each FCV 58. However,from 2016, BEVs are included in the same tax scheme of petrol and diesel cars.The increase in registration tax is gradually phased in, at 20% of the full taxin 2016, 40% in 2017, 65% in 2018, 90% in 2019 and 100% in 2020.
Hydrogen and fuel cell?powered vehicles areexempt from registration tax until the end of 2018 59. This has been one of the reasons for the drop in electric car sales(-68%) observed in 2016 in Denmark 19. As of2017, Denmark is introducing a purchase tax rebate on electric cars based onthe battery capacity of USD 225/kWh up toa maximum of 45 kWh 19. Exemptionof FCVs from registration tax is continueduntil the end of 2018 60.
Public funding for R and demonstration of refueling stations areavailable in Denmark which ranges from DKK10.5 – 15 million 61. Companiesin Denmark supplying EV charging on a commercial basis can receive anelectricity tax rebate of approximately DKK 1 per kWh 62.1Exchange rate for Danish Krone in December 6th, 2017 is 1 DKK ~ 0.16USD