Capital rate, and a great opportunity for international

Capital City:Tokyo population: 13 million (city), 32.5 million people (metro area)Tokyo MetropolitanArea is the largest in the world with the second highest being in Seoul, SouthKorea, with a population of 20.5 million people. The LargestJapanese Cities: Tokyo, Yokohama, Osaka, Kobe, Sapporo, Kyoto, Saitama, Fukuoka,Hiroshima, and SendaiPopulation: 127.3million 11th largest population country in the world (2016).Area: 377,864 sq.

km (145,894 sq. miles), 61st largest country by total land area.Main languages:Japanese, English (taught in high schools)Main religionsShintoism, Taoism, BuddhismMajor Ethnicgroups: Japanese (approximately 98% of population), Korean (0.5%), Chinese(0.4%), Other (1.1%)Life expectancy atbirth: 80 years (men), 87 years (women) 83 years(average) Highest in the worldCurrency: JapaneseYen (?¥) UNDP HumanDevelopment Index (HDI): 0.

891 (2015, 20th in the world)GDP per capita(International $, PPP): $36, 680 (2016 Worldbank)Literacy Rate, age15 and over can read and write: 99%Unemployment rate:Male: 8.7% Female: 7.1% (2012Rank in comparison to the world, 123) Geographically,Japan is an archipelago that consists of over 6,750 islands and volcanoeslocated in the Pacific Ring of Fire. The Pacific Ring of Fire has more than 70%of the world’s active volcanoes located on it and causes 90 percent of theworld’s earthquakes due to the immense amount of pressure created from thetectonic plates. Japan consists of four main islands, Honshu, Kyushu, Hokkaido,Shikoku, and make up 97 percent of the nation’s total land area. Closing thoughts:Japan is one of the most beautiful and geographically diverse nations in theworld with tropical jungles located in the southern parts of Kyushu and snow-coveredmountain plateaus in North of Hokkaido featuring a Palace of ice in Sapporo.

Itboasts a 99% literacy rate for both male and female, low unemployment rate, anda great opportunity for international trade. PoliticalEnvironment    The Japanese government is a constitutionalmonarchy that is divided into three branches; the Legislative, the Executive,and the Judicial. Their legal system is modeled after the European civil lawsystems and has English-American influence, judicial review of legislative actsin the Supreme Court, and they accept compulsory International Court of Justice(ICJ) jurisdiction with reservations.     In the Executive branch, the chief of stateis Emperor Akihito. The cabinet is appointed by the prime minster, which isPrime Minister Naoto Kan, who is the head of government. The judicial branchhas a Supreme court and the chief justice is appointed by the monarch and allother justices are appointed by the cabinet.  Main Political Parties- The Liberal DemocraticParty of Japan (LDP): Centre-right, heads the ruling coalition.- Democratic Partyof Japan (DPJ): centrist, major opposition party.

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– JapanRestoration Party (JRP): right-wing, third largest force, but is slowly losingrepresentation.- Komeito (NK): Centre-right,in coalition with the LDP.- JapaneseCommunist Party (JCP): left-wing, more than doubled its representation in thelast election. Current Political Leaders: Emperor: Akihito (since 7 January1989) – hereditaryPrime Minister:Shinz? Abe (since 26 December 2012) – Liberal Democratic Party Next Election DatesHouse of Representatives: On or before 13 December 2018House of Councilors:2019 Legal Environment  Japan is a civillaw country, governed by laws passed by Parliament and interpreted bythe courts. At thebeginning of the Meiji era (1868-1912), the German and Frenchlegal systems werethe model for the Japanese court and legal system.

After theSecond World War,a major reform of the legal system took place in Japan with manyof the revisedlaws being modeled on American law. Today, the Japanese legal systemremains a hybridof the continental European system and the Anglo-American system. The Constitutionof Japan provides that all judicial power in Japan is vested in theSupreme Court andin such inferior courts as are established by law. The CourtOrganization Lawestablishes the following five types of courts in Japan listed in orderof judicialauthority, from highest to lowest:(1) Supreme Court;(2) High Courts,(3) DistrictCourts;(4) Family Courts;and(5) SummaryCourts.The respectivecourts have their own jurisdiction as provided by law. Each courtrenders a judgmentindependently and a decision of a superior court binds the courtsbelow in respectof the case concerned. In contrast to common law jurisdictions,there is noprinciple of stare decisis (i.

e., a court is not bound by a previous decision inadifferent case). EconomicEnvironment 3rd largesteconomy 4th largest purchasing power2nd largestdeveloped economyleading industrialclusters and manufacturing centersWorld’s largestCreditor Nation Participates inEconomic Partnership agreementsIs a member ofmultiple international trade organizations such as APEC, WTO, OECD, etc. Japan, the world’sthird largest economy, is highly exposed to external shocks because of itsstrong dependence on exports. This vulnerability has been on display in recentyears, as its economy experienced periods of recession alongside the slowdownin the global economy. Natural disasters and backlash to the 2014 VAT increasehave furthered this recessionary trend. In 2015, growth remained sluggish(0.

6%), driven by foreign trade and public consumption. It is expected torebound slightly in 2016, led by strong exports and household consumption. Moving forward,budgetary consolidation will remain a key issue for the country as it tries tobring its debt levels under control.

The ageing of the population and politicaltensions with China and South Korea are additional concerns that Japan willhave to address in the years to come.  Technological Environment/InfrastructureTechnologicalEnvironment means forces that create new technologies, creating new product andmarket opportunities (81). Japan is a good example of technological environmentbecause it is known for its high technology and it has its distinct market.This is especially true when one sees the cell-phone market in Japan. Cellphones are must have gadget to Japanese, especially for people in Tokyo wherethey spend majority of the day outside of their home. Japanese cell-phones havethus developed as more than a phone and have their own features.

Thistechnological advance together with the high usage of cell phones caused Japanto have its own marketing system. Socio-Cultural EnvironmentJapanis a very high-context culture – communication doesn’t require a lot of words,which can be irritating for people from cultures with a lower context. Thecontext also includes non-verbal communication, that is very important.

Thereare books for foreigners that explain the different gestures and body languagecodes of Japanese people.Japaneseavoid eye contact when they want privacy and to stare into someone’s eyes,especially when this person is older or has a higher status, is very impolite.It is also interesting that nonverbal messages can be clearer than words, asthe high-contextuality of this culture allows words to have several meanings -whereas in western societies, words seem more reliable than the nonverbalcommunication.Incontrast to western societies (and France), there is a high level ofcollectivism. At the same time, or rather because of that, it is crucial to Japanesepeople to save their face. They avoid direct confrontation and always staypolite. Therefore, the level of assertiveness is equal zero: beingstraightforward is social suicide.

But there is not only this in-groupcollectivism – national institutions and the organization of the whole cultureis group-centered. The company is the second family and a lot of time is spent there.What western people call self-evaluation is not important to Japanese people -the group judges how effective something is, not the individual.

Because of thestrong sense for groups / the high level of collectivism, harmony is anextremely important value in Japan.Japanhas long-term orientation. Traditional values are very important. Older peopleare held in very high esteem. The oldest person within a social group is alwayshonored and respected. When drinks are served, they are served first, and thedrink is poured for them. It seems like the importance of prestige andcollectivism is somehow linked to this long-term orientation.

The sad fact,that a lot of Japanese men commit suicide can be explained that way. Back inthe days, samurai used to commit suicide to rehabilitate their prestige andhonor. Until today, Japanese men that face a dramatic loss of esteem, commitsuicide. A loss of esteem can also be a scandal at work or a bad mistake thatcauses a setback for the company.

Working for a company is also a long-term andfuture-oriented matter. That’s why in Japan, it is not (only) important to havegreat profit in a quarter year, but to have a strong company and serve thesteak-holders in the long run.Menwere and still are the leading group in Japan. Japan is a male-dominatedcountry. It is common for women to stay at home as housewife and mom once theyare married and have children.

Before women introduce themselves to others, itis also common to mention their men’s profession and children’s school first toexpress her social status. Genders are not equal in Japan.Whenit comes to power distance, it is important to notice that people have a strongsense for hierarchy. When your boss wants to drink tea with you, not acceptingis a no-go. When you greet a person with higher power, you must bend your backenough to be physically lower than your opposite. In school, children aretaught to address to older students as “seniors”. As all decisionsare made by groups though, the power distance is not as strong as the socialorder suggests.Concerningthe level of uncertainty avoidance, you can say that Japan belongs to thecountries with the highest level of uncertainty avoidance.

The geographicsetting threatens their life with earthquakes, tsunamis and volcano eruptions. Todeal with this situation, Japanese are used to prepare for worst-casescenarios.   

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