B:Open Collocations: A combination oftwo words or more . They are unrestrictly   combined together as there is no relation among them. Here a word canassociate with a series of different words , example:-the verb ‘cut’ collocateswith: Hair ,ties , prices, jobs, and body.

C: Bound Collocations:  Cowie (1981:228) defines them as ” Abridge category between collocations and idioms” . Abu –Saydeh (1991:66) proposes that morefocus should be directed towards lexical collocations , because ”Grammatical collocations has received its fair share of emphasis in the work ofgrammarians and lexicographers”.Newmark (1981:114) divides collocationsinto two broad types : Paradigmatic or syntagmatic . Paradigmatic types arehierarchy –based like kinships as in ‘mother and daughters , father and sons’ ,colors as in ‘bright green’ , ‘sky blue’ , ‘snow –white ‘, ‘dark red’, ‘coal-black’/’pitch –black’/’jet –black’ .Newmark (1981:118) further dividessyntagmatic collocations into the following:-1-Adjective and NounExamples include:1-bright colour  : ????? ??? ???? 2-brief chat???? ?? ?????        :  ????3-major problem:  ?????? ?????? English and Arabic are full of this  common type of  collocations .Some- times students translatethem as tantamount to their Arabic equivalents. Yet , most students suffer toprovide good or exact translations to some other kinds of these types oftranslation such as :- 1-hard facts :   ?????? ????? 2-artificial person :(????????? )   ???????? ????? 3-small talk :????(????? )         ????4-high treason :   ????  ?????  5-hightime : ????? ???????       Any other kind of translations  into Arabic will not be acceptable like:-hard facts(  ????  ?????), artificial person ( ?????  ???) ,small talk  ????) ????), high treason (  ????? ?????) ,high time ( ???? ???).Therefore , as a solution  students should do their best to find andthen use the best identical collocation and avoid literal translations .

Here are some more special  adjective +noun collocations which are usedto describe movement and speed :-1-fast : computer , lane , pace , carand train .2-quick : shower , decision , look ,glance , answer , and lunch .3-rapid : growth , decline , change ,progress , movement , and increase .4- speedy : conclusion and access .

5-swift : action and  reaction .6- prompt : payment 7- brisk : walk , businessand efficiency .8- hasty : words and exit . Learners or translation studentsfrequently miss English equivalents for these adjectives. Therefore , as asolution , the researcher suggests that students can resort to using theeasiest equivalent they find ; most probably ‘ fast ‘ .

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,80
Delivery
4,90
Support
4,70
Price
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
4,70
Writers Experience
4,70
Delivery
4,60
Support
4,60
Price
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,50
Delivery
4,40
Support
4,10
Price
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team

Or more confusing examples as:1- artificial respiration :  ?????  ???? 2-incurable disease :     ???? ??? 3-strong tea :         ???? ???  4-gravebreach :   ????  ??????  5-freeadmission :  ?????  ????Students confuse themselves here as theyfind more choices of synonyms here ; industrial or artificial  , strong or heavy , grave or dangerous . 2-Noun and Noun. Noun + Noun Collocations examples such as:1-gun powder : ?????  2-breadwinner :  ???? (??????)?3-breath test :  ???? ???4-gun runner : ????? ????5-fire truck / fire engine :  ????? ????? Or noun + noun ( the of –genitive (???????)Collocations like:-1- breach of contract :??????? ??????   ???  2-breachof peace :   ?????? ?????3-breach of security :????    ?????? 4-breakof serve :?????   ???Other examples include :-a sense ofhumor /pride , a surge of anger . Students here should be aware of theresemblance between words in this categories ; such resemblance may causeconfusion to them such as: breach of peace and breach of security . Also grammatical structure of both languageshave to be observed .

Or noun + and + noun ( addition )collocations:- 1-the carrot and stick :   ??????  ??????  2-ladiesand gentlemen :  ?????  ??????3-Stars and Stripes :????????     ?????  4-bread and cheese :  ???????))  ????? ?Some kinds of these collocations areeasy to translate , because they have their direct equivalents like :- ladiesand gentlemen , carrot and stick , but some are a bit difficult requiring goodknowledge of the source language such as:- Stars and Stripes  (????? ???? ) , bread and cheese (???????) will be destructive and funny. 3-Verb and Noun. Newmark (1981). Verb + Noun Collocations examples:- 1- raise capital : ??????? ????? / ???? 2-commit a mistake :  ???? ?????3-lift ban  :?????????    4-send a cable : ????? ????5- receive a message:  ?????????? / ????? The main idea here is a verb and nounmatching where students  provide theexact Arabic collocation , but in most cases students commit mistakes as in thefollowing examples :- 1- stand criticism : ????? ????? 2- raise an issue :????????       3-picka fowl:   ????? ????4-bear a hand :?????