Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorderthat usually affect children and teens.
This disorder can continue to adulthoodin some certain case. Patient with ADHD often hyperactivity and unable tocontrol their behavior. There is also another name for ADHD, which is,Hyperkinetic Disorder (HD), that had been used by the World Health Organization(WHO) because of it similar signs and symptoms of ADHD (The Editor ofEncyclopedia Britannica, 2017).
The most common disorders had been used inmedicine researchers is ADHD or HD (Polanczyk, Biederman, Lima, Horta, andRohde, 2007). According to National Institute of Mental Health NIMH (2007),estimated about three to seven percent, or more than two million school-agechildren have this behavioral disorder. This means that at least one or twochildren in a classroom suffered from ADHD throughout the United States. The exact cause of ADHDis not fully confirmed by Scientists, yet, a combination of factor might contributeto the ADHD. Several factors like genes, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, druguse during pregnancy, low birth weight and brain injuries which contribute toADHD (NIMH, 2007). For example, when a mother during pregnancy is having smoke mayaffects the baby to have hyperactivity and inattention (Barkley, 2000). Accordingto Barkley (2000), the scientific research on the cause of ADHD has focused ondisorders in the brain – either brain injuries or abnormal brain development.
Thisis because the imperfection in the brain that causes the behavioral disorderthat make people find so intolerable in a patient who has ADHD (Barkley, 1995).However, this ADHD is not caused by parental failure to discipline or controlthe child. It is not sign of some sort of inherent “badness” in the child(Barkley, 2013). Symptoms and behaviorthat commonly found among patient with ADHD can be categorized into threetypes, which are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. The inattention isdefined as a person has difficulty in staying focus. This is because of patientwith ADHD are easily distracted and they experience difficulties concentratingon any assignment (Rock, 2009).
Then, the hyperactivity is defined as a personlike to move around frequently. Patient with ADHD may squirm, fidget, or runaround at the wrong times (Healthwise Staff, 2017). Besides, according toHealthwise Staff (2017), adults with ADHD often feel anxious and fidgety.
Theyare not able to enjoy reading or other quiet activities. The impulsivity is definedas a person always acting before thinking. It is also stated by Healthwisestaff (2017), patient with ADHD always use high voice pitch when communicatingwith others that is unnecessary in that situation. Moreover, children with ADHDmay not be able to wait for their turn or to share. This makes it hard for themto play with other children. Furthermore, ADHD is found to be more common inmales than females (Boyles, 2004). This can explain as boys are usuallyclinic-referred due to oppositional, aggressive, and conduct behavior.
However,females with ADHD syndrome are difficult to pay attention because ofinternalizing behaviors such as anxiety, social withdrawal, and depression(Jamison, 2000). Other conditions, such as learning difficulties, andbehavioral disorder are common in patient with ADHD. Currently, there are noexact cure for ADHD patients. However, some treatments are available to helpreduce symptoms and improve functioning. Example of treatments includemedication, psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016). These treatments have been demonstratedto have short-term effects.
In addition, behavior treatments such as parent training,child-focus training and school-based intervention can be provided to ADHDchildren (“Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder”, n.d.). Centers forDisease Control and Prevention (2017) declaimed that parent training inbehavior treatment has shown to strengthen the relationship between parent andADHD children, which indirectly decrease children’s problem behavior.
However,ADHD patient always talk in high voice pitch without being able to controltheir voice pitch that used is not suitable in some surrounding. They maycreate an uncomfortable situation for other people. Therefore, by using theexternal technology, can help the ADHD patient to control voice pitchimmediately without influence to others.