At the Mercure Opera Garnier, some
HR policies are designed by the group AccorHotels and some are directly
designed by the general manager. For example, AccorHotels has a very strong
policy about the equality between men and women. They should have equal pays,
equal opportunities regarding promotion or training. Moreover, in every hotel,
the number of men and women should be the same. In addition to those policies,
the general manager has decided to established news policies regarding the
recruitment of persons with disabilities. The hotel is now working with a
special center for disable people and has hired 2 people from the center to
work within the hotel.
policies are ways of keeping the organization inform about employment standards
and current trend in legislation (Jackson and Seo, 2010). They are implemented
to meet the requirement regarding several aspects from diversity and equality
to health and safety and work-life balance. Those policies have to be in
accordance with the working laws and provide a safe workplace for the employees.
Some of them, like diversity, can also enhance the company’s image. They
promote equity in the way in which employees are treated and also how the
organization fulfills its social responsibilities (Armstrong, 2006). Those HR
policies are implemented and monitored by the line manager who makes sure that
they are understood and respected by the staff.
1.6 Ensuring that operational policies and
practices are aligned with strategic HR policies
At the Mercure Opéra Garnier,
training and development are considered very important. The goal of the general
manager is to reduce turnover and offer opportunities for career development
within the organization. Regarding training, the hotel benefits from procedures
implemented by AccorHotels. For example, the hotel can send employees to the
“AccorHotels Académie” for all sorts of training consistent with the Accor
culture regardless of their position, their age or their seniority (Accorhotels,
2017). Moreover, AccorHotels has developed the e-learning which permit to the
employees to access a training on their workplace. This system reduces costs
for the company because the employee doesn’t need to be replaced since the
training is taking place for a few hours during his shift.
Training is the process of learning
the skills that you need for a particular job or activity. Training is
mandatory and is funded by a financial contribution according to the size of
the organization. It helps maintaining and developing skills useful within the
company, improve the employability. Training permits to learn job more
effectively, improve work performance and also keep the employee to date with
specialized skills. Thanks to training, employees can execute a greater volume
of work due less mistakes and a better quality. It also improve the manager’s
job because there is less waste of time rectifying errors. Training and
development can also help reduce turnover with more specialized workforce which
is a recurrent problem in the hospitality industry (Mathis and Jackson, 2008).
On the other hand training can be very costly in terms of money and time for
companies. Moreover the company needs to analyze his return on investment
because some employees tend to leave the company for a better job after they
1.5 Evaluating the costs and benefits of
staff training and development
Mercure, objectives are created with the employees according to their skills
and capabilities. The company implemented a reward strategy: if the objectives
are achieved, employees get a bonus on their salaries. Moreover, managers try
to give responsibilities to their employees so they feel involved in the
organization and work harder to make the company successful.
Figure 1: McGregor’s Theory X and Y
an authoritarian management
Need for participative management
In the hospitality
industry, the most important resource is the workforce. Therefore the business
performance is highly linked to the staff and their motivation. The employees
need to know that they are contributing to the organization to feel included in
the company. It is important that employees enjoy the tasks that they are given
in the company (Harter, Schmidt and Keyes, 2003). To achieve the goals of the
organization, managers need to understand how each employees would like to be
recognized, and the kind of objectives employees wish to have. Indeed,
according to the theory of McGregor, the source of motivation can be different
if the employee is X or Y. The individual X doesn’t like to take initiative and
is not especially ambitious in his career. On the other hand, the individual Y
needs to have more autonomy and responsibilities. They need to participate and
communicate ideas to the manager (See Figure 1). Moreover the company needs to
take into account the development and self-actualization needs as a tool to
increase motivation leading to effective performance (Lee and Bruvold, 2003).
1.4 Explaining the links between staff
motivation and business performance
the Mercure, the general manager has a lot of tasks to deal with so he is often
delegating to his accommodation manager so he can concentrate on the more
important tasks. The communication is very organized in the hotel and they use
different channels such as a notice board in the back office, small meetings
with a part of the staff or even one on one appointment. Furthermore, the
general manager is fair and makes sure to treat every employee equally, to
listen to every opinion before making a decision. He knows how to motivate his
staff and involve them in projects development.
personal qualities, a manager is supposed to attract and mostly retain employees.
A manager needs to be fair, show honesty and integrity (Riaz, 2013). By being
honest and fair, the manager is going to build a foundation of trust with his
staff. This goes hand in hand with respect, and a sense of values and ethics.
Moreover, a manager needs to be confident and with a positive attitude. He
needs to motivate his team and be convincing, he needs to make them believe in
of the most important managerial skill is time management which helps reduce
time waste by establishing planning so the employees know exactly what to do. An
effective time management is linked to prioritizing and also delegating to
subordinates to focus on the important tasks. Therefore lower-level employees
feel more included when they have decision-making responsibilities. The manager
also needs to have skills in communication. The key to managerial effectiveness
is clear communication (Badawy, 1995). Every employee needs to know what to do,
when to do it and how to do it.
1.3 Defining the personal qualities and
managerial skills that are capable of influencing staff behavior positively
the Mercure Opéra Garnier, the HR function is endorsed by the general manager
of the hotel. Since he has a lot of responsibilities, a part of the HRM is
placed directly in the hands of line managers. For example, each head of
department deals with their own recruitment and selection process. They conduct
the interviews themselves and get the final approval from the general manager.
HR function can be divided in several parts. The HR department is here to
ensure staff available to meet organization needs and also to provide
developmental support such as recruitment, selection, appraisal, training and
promotion. The HR function also consists in dealing with staff problem and
support, advice line managers when they need it (Nickson, 2006). Line managers
are people who are responsible for a work group to a higher level of the hierarchy,
and are placed in the lower layers of the management hierarchy, usually at the
first level (Hutchinson and Purcell, 2003). He is the main interface between
the organization and its workforce. His role is to check the quality of the
service provided by the employees as well as monitoring their performance. One
of his main function is to implement the HR policies and practices. Line
managers share the monitoring of human resource work with the HR department.
The main purpose of placing responsibilities of HRM in the line is to reduce
costs, accelerate the decision-making process and to find an alternative to
outsourcing the HR function (Larsen and Brewster, 2003).
the respective roles and responsibilities of line managers and the HR function
At the Mercure Paris Opéra Garnier, we can say that the
general manager fulfills the 3 roles of the manager. He is a natural leader who
knows how to motivate his team. He tries to integrate the staff in the decision
process and is also here to listen and solve problem that may arise between
staff members. He decided to expand the hotel with the construction of spa and
to innovate with the suppression of the reception, which makes him an
leader is often seen as charismatic and held in high esteem by his peers
whereas a manager held his authority from the hierarchy and is the
organizational taskmaster (Kotterman, 2006). The role of a leader refers mostly
to the motivation of the workforce: he is here to inspire and encourage
creativity, maintain a healthy group dynamic and an open communication.
According to Mintzberg (2009), a manager has 3 roles: interpersonal (leader,
figurehead), informational (monitor, spokesman) and decisional (negotiator,
entrepreneur). We can therefore say that all managers are leaders but not all
leaders are managers.
function of people management can be divided in 4 parts: planning, organizing,
leading and controlling (Thietard, 2003). Planning is the way that can allow
the company to anticipate and prepare measures to establish. Organizing refers
to the accomplishment of tasks, create clear line of authority and hierarchy
and to implement effective coordination and cooperation. Leading is a way of
animating the actors of the company so they plan, organize and control their actions.
It is a question of motivating teams in an organization. Finally, controlling
refers to making sure that results are compliant with the objectives of the
company established during the planning. The implementation of those functions
can be related to two positions in an organization: the leader and the manager.