IoT refers to connect billion of everyday devices, facilities and individuals to send and receive useful and important data. As IoT systems are getting global and there is a dramatic increase in the number of devices connecting to IoT every year. This increase in devices means increase in security and privacy issues. To ensure the connected devices are not vulnerable and trustworthy.
Hence, effective, reliable and cost-effective security and privacy solutions are required. In this paper, the IoT security and privacy threats and issues, their solution and future possibilities with respect to security and privacy in IoT are presented. Internet of Things is a novel paradigm that connects billion of individuals and devices remotely as the Wireless Network Sensors are modernized along with advancement in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID).
Per the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) “The Internet of Things (IoT) is a system of interrelated computing devices, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals or people that are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction”  The basic functionality of IoT is simple, wireless network sensors are embedded into the devices. Depending on the functionality of the device each sensor collects and monitors data for different purposes for instance location, temperature and gesture.
The data was passed on to the individual or to the system. cellular technologies. In the most of the nations, available spectrum is reaching a limit; inner-site distance among the cells in the major cities have reached a point where they cannot be reduced any further for practical reasons, and concerns about the radiations are additional obstacles for the more macro cellular deployment . [pic 1] IoT architecture The architecture of IoT is divided into three layers namely Recognition/perception layer, Wireless Sensors Network layer and Application layer as shown in figure.
The very first layer of IoT architecture is the perception layer. The functionality of perception or recognition layer is to gather data from the connected devices and identify other related objects. The second layer is the Network layer which is also known as the ‘’Central Nervous System” of IoT architecture that takes care of global services in the IoTs, since it acts the part of aggregating with upward application layer and makes the link downward of perceptual layer. . The Network layer process the data gathered by the Perception layer and broadcast processed data.
The Network layer also provides network connections. The last layer that is the application layer examines the problems thoroughly and provides solution for all industries. [pic 2] IoT Protocol Stack IoT is used from cross-platform embedded systems to cloud systems connecting in real-time. IoT protocol Stack consists of seven layers as can be seen in figure. To simplify the architecture the top three layers are grouped together. Several protocols on every layer of IoT stack have been developed which enables the IoT devices to operate.
These protocols have been designed to achieve efficiency and energy preservation along with memory and computational requirements. [pic 3] The benefit of IoT protocols as compared to web protocols is that the data overhead by IoT protocol is very less as compared to the hundreds or thousands of bytes of data overhead produced by Web protocol stack. The figure below list some of the few advantages IoT Protocol Stack provides when compared to Web Protocol Stack [pic 4] IoT Infrastructure: The five main key elements of IoT infrastructure are IoT Platforms
IoT Cloud storage and processing IoT Data analytics IoT Security and Privacy IoT Platforms IoT platforms is the integral part of initial stage of IoT infrastructure. “An IoT platform is a suite of software components that enable remote data collection and control over connected devices, independent secure communication and interaction between devices themselves, over-the-air configuration or firmware updates for the devices, device management, user notifications, and convenient collateral functions regarding user & device policy management.
IoT platforms provide end-to-end solutions” . IoT platform plays a role of a bridge between application layer and the devices hence IoT platforms are also refer as middleware. There are many different platforms available however the best platforms tend to integrate will all the possible smart devices and their applications. This independence from underlying hardware and overhanging software allows a single IoT platform to implement IoT features into any kind of connected device in the same straightforward way.
Other factors that differentiate IoT platforms are scalability, data security level and portability to blend with external software’s. Cloud Storage and processing As the devices are wirelessly connected and IoT devices sends and receives important data consequently secure database are required to store this data. The top Networking companies provides secure cloud solution to store this data. The advantage of using remote cloud solutions for storing data is that it allows devices to have direct access to the database hence optimizing the devices operation.
IoT Data Analytics Data storage also known as Big Data is a critical information from the devices so not only does it requires safe storage space but also high-performance data analytics. Beside data analytics offered by big networking companies there are specific analytical modules such as predictive analytics, data mining and forecasting. “If there is a single-one enabler of value in the Internet of Things, it has to be data analytics” .
Additionally, more companies are investing in data analytics for IoT. IoT Security and Privacy IoT security and Privacy has always been an issue when it comes to connected personal devices. Data breaches and subsequently leading to identity theft and data misuse is a big obstacle in the way of IoT development. People expect their data to be safe and secure when they invest in IoT devices. Major companies are investing huge amount in just the security and privacy of IoT devices and data storage policies.