As the word describes scientific literature represents the permanentrecord of the collective achievements of scientific community over time.
Thepurpose of scientific literature is science itself, as science merely focuseson ideas, facts, laws and categories discovered by scientist through eminentefforts and researches.Scientific literature is a way or tool to record thesenoteworthy researches through publications. The record and result of theseresearches are recorded in a form we know as scientific literature making it anevidence with the help of facts and laws applied throughout the conductedresearch.The modern style of scientific literature is distinguishedby objectivity, by logical presentations, and by clarity and conciseness ofliterary language in combination and use of scientific notations such as terms,symbols, formulas, graphs, diagrams etc.However, for any scientific research, publication isessential in cases of a question concerning the establishment of scientificpriority.
Publication of these scientific literature notes and papers follow adifferent format than publication of other researches. Scientific literature composing the scientific knowledgebase is often divided into two basic parts.1. Primary Literature2.
Secondary literaturePrimary LiteraturePrimary literature refers to accounts of research carriedout personally by an individual scientist or as a collaborated research by agroup of scientists, which is published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.These papers are commonly called ‘journal papers’ and are written in theparticular format specified by the journal to which it is submitted forpublication. These journal papers consist of a title, abstract, keywords,introduction, material & methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements andreferences.In the world of science, the contribution of an individualscientist to the advancement of knowledge is usually gauged partly on thenumber of publications that the scientist has contributed to, especially thosepublished in international peer-reviewed journals with high impact factors.PEER REVIEW PROCESSPapers are submitted to the journal editor who asks recognizedexperts in the area of study addressed by the paper (called ‘referees’) to givean opinion on whether the work reported presents new scientific information,and to report on the merits and deficiencies of the work. On the basis of thereferees’ reports, the editor may accept the paper as it was submitted, or mayrequire minor or major from the authors, or the paper may be refused outright.
This formal reviewing process is known as ‘peer review’.There are different forms in which primary literature isexecuted and published some of its common forms are· Journal papers· Conference preceding papers· Extended abstracts· Dissertation/ thesis· Manuscript· Patents· Review reports· Video recordings by expert· Magazine papersSecondaryLiteratureThe SECONDARY LITERATURE consists of publications that relyon primary sources for information. In secondary literature it is not compulsoryfor the authors to have done the work themselves, since the purpose of thepublication is to summarize and synthesize knowledge in a specific area forother scientists who already have an understanding of the topic; however, theauthors of secondary publications would have worked and published primaryliterature in the area of their research. Secondarypublications are not organized in the same way that primary publications are;however, it is a universal requirement that it is fully referenced and that mostof these references are to the primary literature. Scientists use the secondaryliterature to gain an overview of research areas that are close to or relevantto their own, or to familiarize themselves with existing research in new topicson which they plan to start working.
The secondary literature includes· Books· Reviews· Newspaper· Newsletters· Treatises etc.These take to produce and usually cite key “primarypublications” on the topic.