As the word describes scientific literature represents the permanent
record of the collective achievements of scientific community over time. The
purpose of scientific literature is science itself, as science merely focuses
on ideas, facts, laws and categories discovered by scientist through eminent
efforts and researches.

Scientific literature is a way or tool to record these
noteworthy researches through publications. The record and result of these
researches are recorded in a form we know as scientific literature making it an
evidence with the help of facts and laws applied throughout the conducted

The modern style of scientific literature is distinguished
by objectivity, by logical presentations, and by clarity and conciseness of
literary language in combination and use of scientific notations such as terms,
symbols, formulas, graphs, diagrams etc.

However, for any scientific research, publication is
essential in cases of a question concerning the establishment of scientific
priority. Publication of these scientific literature notes and papers follow a
different format than publication of other researches.

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Scientific literature composing the scientific knowledge
base is often divided into two basic parts.

Primary Literature

Secondary literature

Primary Literature

Primary literature refers to accounts of research carried
out personally by an individual scientist or as a collaborated research by a
group of scientists, which is published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
These papers are commonly called ‘journal papers’ and are written in the
particular format specified by the journal to which it is submitted for
publication. These journal papers consist of a title, abstract, keywords,
introduction, material & methods, results, discussion, acknowledgements and

In the world of science, the contribution of an individual
scientist to the advancement of knowledge is usually gauged partly on the
number of publications that the scientist has contributed to, especially those
published in international peer-reviewed journals with high impact factors.


Papers are submitted to the journal editor who asks recognized
experts in the area of study addressed by the paper (called ‘referees’) to give
an opinion on whether the work reported presents new scientific information,
and to report on the merits and deficiencies of the work. On the basis of the
referees’ reports, the editor may accept the paper as it was submitted, or may
require minor or major from the authors, or the paper may be refused outright.
This formal reviewing process is known as ‘peer review’.

There are different forms in which primary literature is
executed and published some of its common forms are

Journal papers

Conference preceding papers

Extended abstracts

Dissertation/ thesis



Review reports

Video recordings by expert

Magazine papers


The SECONDARY LITERATURE consists of publications that rely
on primary sources for information. In secondary literature it is not compulsory
for the authors to have done the work themselves, since the purpose of the
publication is to summarize and synthesize knowledge in a specific area for
other scientists who already have an understanding of the topic; however, the
authors of secondary publications would have worked and published primary
literature in the area of their research.

publications are not organized in the same way that primary publications are;
however, it is a universal requirement that it is fully referenced and that most
of these references are to the primary literature. Scientists use the secondary
literature to gain an overview of research areas that are close to or relevant
to their own, or to familiarize themselves with existing research in new topics
on which they plan to start working.

The secondary literature includes





Treatises etc.

These take to produce and usually cite key “primary
publications” on the topic.


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