APUSH Out of Many Chapter 14 notes BY 296785982 Chap 14-The Territorial expansion of the United States A. Community: Texans&TEJAOS “Remember the Alamo. ” 1 . 1836, Santa Anna(President of Mexico) came to subdue Texas-I ,500 Mexican died,& Texas defenders(failed)- “remember the Alamo” eventually forced Santa Anna to recognize Texas independence.
2. Tejanos(S. Texans)-favored A. Settlers for their economic plan-authorized A. Colonies w/in Texas(central/ east)-attracted ppl from Miss.
Valley-introduced slavery&cotton-TeJanos, both wealthy rancheros&poor cowboy/tenant farmer(vaqueros/peones). 3. Political&socially unstable first after evol. At 1821 -Liberals favored loose federal union but strong states-Texas(not a state) favored local control-Liberals controlled Mexican city,1828-opposed A. In Texas- Tejanos defended A. -Seguin helped defeated Mexicans. 4. First A.
Outnumbered by Tejanos-intermixed w/ them(frontier of inclusion)-later as more A. Came, started opposing of exclusion, anti-Mexican-few remembered Tejanos helped in Texas independence.Exploring the West: 1. 1840,occupied all land east of Miss. R. &statehoods(except FL&Wl)-maJority lived w. – Market revol. Transportation&commerce induced expansion-source of national pride hat seek for further expansion-established several frontiers-A.
Took several century to understand the geography. The Fur Trade: 1. Flourished between 1670-1840s, important spur to the exploration ofw. -B. +F. First to explore W. In search of beaver pelt-depended on N.
A. (Cree,Assiniboins&Blackfeet)- creating metis-B. Dominated fur trade-A.Wanted to challenge it-Lewis&Clark expedition& “rendezvous”system by 1820s of Rocky M. Fur Company by Ashley-met at appointed location to trade- loud,polyglot&many-day affair w/ many nations. 2. Mountain men rarely contacted w/ A.
Society-married w/ N. A. (helper& diplomatic inks for tribes)-A. fur trade soon ended(1840s) bc less beavers-but mountain men helped to forge w. Geography w/Jedediah Smith(to CA) for permanent settlers that followed. Government-sponsored Exploration: 1 . Govt. Played major rule in exploration&development of W.
Lewis&Clark Expedition 1804-06- precedent for others-Pike in 1806-07 to Rocky Mt ,Long in 1819-20 at Great Plains-continued after Civil War(Grand Canyon)- Mapped&illustrated started w/ Long’s expedition-A. Eager to know Far W’s landscape&inhabitants-artist like Karl Bodmer-these images contributed to emerging A. Seld-image&pride. . Geologist,botanist&surveyors mapped land sale for Land Ordinance of 1785 all the way to Pacific Ocean, sold at low$-govt. also shouldered for Indian removal, pay for soldier,compensate N. A.
support peace between settlers&natives. Expansion and Indian Policy: 1 . While A. Artist painted w. N.
A, easter natives were being removed to Indian Territory(Great A. Dessert) -Justified by TJ as giving space for slowly civilization-but failed to predict the pace of settlers to w. -Santa Fe Trail in 1821&Overland Trail to CA&Oregon soon encroached Indian Territory-abolished N.
Indian Territory by 1854- orced to accept smaller reservation or allotment-often sold to settlers again under pressure-lost both identity&autonomy. 2. civilized tribes is somehow better- established new communities&self-governing nations w/ their own school&church(not different from A. Society they left)-also brought slavery&cotton w/ them&shipped them to No-finally be able to resist pressure&remain self-gov.
after Civil War. 3. “Indian problem”remained even w/ E. removal- W. Nomadic&warlike natives, Rocky Mt of seminomadic tribes&farming in the SW.
-pioneers first ignored these issues, later war broke out after Civil War-remaining penned up on small eservations. The Politics of Expansion: 1 .Rapid growth had many consequence-most significantly reinforced sense of pioneering ppl-1890s, Frederick Jackson Turner claimed expansion formed A.
Into adventurous,optimistic&democratic(venture). Manifest Destiny, an Expansionist Ideology: 1 . Manifest destiny provided rationale that A.
Expansion across continent inevitably&ordained by God to bring A. democracy to backward ppl(N. A&Mexican)- first expressed by John O’Sullivan,1845-summed up nation pride(business) zeal-challenged B. In particular. 2.After Panic of 1837, more convinced that prosperity depended on trade w/Asia- looked for W. harbor (Puget Sound in Oregon, San Diego at Mexican controlled CA)-Sullivan was Democrat-supported expansion,but Whigs opposed it industrialization bc fear expansion of slavery. 3.
Democrats also feared industrialization welcomed by Whigs-viewed as economic depression-panic of 1837 caused by uncontrolled growth unrest-seek for TJ’s agrarian society to balance(also bc many were S. Who practiced cotton production)-Average farmers moved for land hunger,national pride,curiosity,& sense of adventure.The Overland Trials: 1. 0verland Trail from Missouri R. To Oregon&CA long,dangerous,tedious&exhausting- separated from family&homeland-still streamed to W. (5+to O,3+CA in 1845&48)-bc provided economic opportunities& healthy surrounding(appeal to panic of 1837&malaria stroke farmers), also bc men seeking for sense of adventure&women seeking for ideal home-travel in group bc fear of natives&need help passing river&mt- often elected a leader of the “train”-democratic but not accepted unanimously- everyone had to accept benefit/bad of new community.
. Route danger&poorly in way toward CA-(Sierra Nevada-Donner arty- cannibalism)-wagons endangered by illness&accident-lndian attack-few, but white attacked them more often -disease(choler)common&death often by drowning,accidents&wound-ppl taking care of other ppl whose relatives died-1860,300000 ppl traveled overland trial-ended when railroad prevailed in 1869. Oregon: 1 . First contact between natives&Europeans were commercial for beaver skin-frontier of inclusion-B. & A. Both claimed for Oregon-Convention of 1818 agreed to occupy it jointly-B.Actually dominated bc of Hudson’s Bay Company created fur trading Fort Vancouver(polyglot Indians)-diaster for Indian(disease). 2.
First permanent European ettler is fur trappers w/their Indian wife/families-lived in lush Willamette Valley-second missionaries-mostly failed as disease decreased popul. remained nomadic-third Midwest land-signaled frontier of exclusion-none made treaty w/native Indian-both A. . don’t have claim- difficult life for early settlers-helped by Hudson Bay Company bc McLoughlin’s sympathy of danger his enterprise by A. 3.
A. Settlers created their own Constitution(lowa)-strains between A. -Polk claimed 55 40 or fght-established 491/ border-joint occupancy ended-Oregon Donation Land Claim Act of 1850 gave white ales huge lands(not A. A, Indian etc). 4. Settlers realized the importance of community,cooperation,mutual aid-food sharing common-sense of community did not extend to Indians, but relation rather peaceful until 1847(conflict)- granted as state in 1859(peaceful compared to Texas) The Santa Fe Trade: 1 . S.
opposed A. Trade(Pike’s exploration to Great Plain captured by S. -changed when Mexico gained its independence-Santa Fe Trial was danger w/ Indian attacks(Apaches&Comanches)-federal protection- caravans increased dramatically bc of high profits-married w. Local women-frontier of inclusion-trading post grew along he trail-Bents Fort. 2.
Bent’s Fort-multiethnic popul. -3 small communities of Pueblo,Hardscrabble-men w/ all nationalities/Mexican wives- based on hunting,trapping farming-economic mixed- characteristic of all early frontier-different than Texas. Texas: 1 . Texas established as buffer against F. ttack-independence since 1821 -organized around missions, forts for farming-divided into ricos-most Tejanos neither cowboys or ricos, but small farmer-faced constant threat of Comanche Indians. 2. Comanches reinforced by horses-attacked Texas settlements elentlessly-totally depended on buffalo hunting-not interested in religion/mixed- race trading communities.
Americans in Texas: 1 . 1821 ,Mexican govt. granted Austin a huge land w/in Texas to strengthen buffer zone-first A.
Empresarios-different than other frontier at beginning-legal(others not or Jointly occupied) become Mexican citizens-A. ost proud of their Protestant frontiersman instead of free for all-chose S. slave owners-out#TeJanos.
2. Austin settlement followed by others(21)at river bottom east of Texas-organized farming enterprise of cotton(mostly)by slavery it to nternational market(NO)-these S. viewed Texas as natural extension of cotton farming-created enclaves-not adopted to Catholic citizen-little contact w/ Indian/ Mexicans-created communities like immigrants did to US,but no intention to adopt to-married w/ Tejanos elites(Bowie wNeramendi). . Texas able to maintain 3communities for a while:Comanche for their hunting ground at N, Tejanos ranchos in S, A. for land grant in E-broken by 1828 as centralist gained control& restricted tax-A.
talked about rebellion- supported by vehemently anti-Mexican expansionist after 1830-made racist tatement-decided to take over Texas. 4. War broke out in 1835w/Texas eventually won at the Battle of San Jacinto-refused by Congress- Mexican thought A. Aiming for Mexico-Texas failed to capture Santa Fe in 1841. Texas and the Election of 1844: 1 .
Texas rebuffed again by US bc fearing of 14th slavery state(led by John Quincy Adams, MA)- but Jackson did managed to recognized Texasl 837-Mexico also stress Texas- reconquered brieflyl 842-many Tejanos fled to Mexico-A. wanted to imprison them(NO)-San Antonio remained Mexican city-A. Struggled to conquer Tejanos(Manifest destiny)- ethnocentric soon won-blaming M. TeJanos-lndian issue remained unsolved after Civil War. 2.
Buren feared to raise Texas annexation-Texas looked for support from B. -alarmed A. -Tyler brough up topic for reelection-backfired-Calhoun awakened sectional fear of S. xpanding slavery-Whig nominated Clay(uncommitted)-Democrat-Polk(favored)-Polk won& Birney’s Liberty Party also strong-increasing power of antislavery-Tyler pushed for Texas- 1 5 slavery state in 1845. The Mexican-American War: 1 .
Polk accepted 49/1 at Oregonl 836,CA&New Mexicol 848(after war)&Texas-70%in 3yrs- manifest destiny president. Origins of the War: . 0regon quiet down-Texas serious-Mexico broke diplomatic relation w/US&land dispute N. of Rio Grande-sent General Taylor in case of M. invasion-also secretly sent naval to conquer CA if war started-proposed residents A.
To rebel-declaring CA independence from Mexico 2.Also sent John Slidell to buy New Mexico-refused-sent Tyler into M. border-1846,skirmish- petition Congress to declare war bc M.
invading A(false)-declared in 1846,May 13. Mr. Polks War: 1 . Whig(Lincoln)criticized war incident&blamed for president’s misleading-beginning of president’s power against Congress(again in mounted- pposition increased- blamed war as plot for S. Slavery expansion-expansionist dream fueled sectional antagonisms. 2. N experienced mass&individual protests- MA, Thoreau wrote “Civil Disobedience”(moral individual against immoral govt.
)- modeled by Gandhi protest B. ontrol of India-modeled by King in civil right movement, 1950-60s-war charged”Mr. Polks War’Whigs 3. Polk(no military background)assigned himself as chief(followed by Lincoln)-sent Taylor to NE M.
to NM-successful-later hash by M. resistance(many died- A. revenged on M. citizens)-finally won in 1847w/ the lost of Mexico City by General Scott. 4.
Nicholas Trist delivered Polk’s term of peace-Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo(Feb. 2, 1848)-M. Ceded NM&CA&Rio Grande as border&1 5million to M. – infuriated Polk who wished”all M. “-but opposed by N. Whigs(M. Will poison A)&Southerners(Calhoun, M.
an’t be equal as A. )-Polk gave up- 10million Gadsden Purchase,1853-facilitate S. Transcontinental railroads. The Press and Popular War Enthusiasm: 1 . M-A War first regular,on-the-scene report by press-affect citizens-telegraph made it possible- “penny press”of crim always insatiable-First time in became the major shapers of popular attitudes toward war-stirred popular xcitement. 2.
Reports united A. in new way-temporary but emotional community linked by newsprint gathering-celebrated for victories-Taylor became heroes candidates-war new had a deep impacts on popular imagination.California and The Gold Rush: 1 . Early 1840s, CA inhabited seminomadic Indian A. traders& setters-intermarried w/Californios-Texas annexation affected CA little- Gold Rush of 1849 changed CA permanently. Russian-Californio Trade: 1 . First European is Russian-CA far from Spanish control-isolated to forbid trade w/other nation- established illegal small trade w/A. cattle hide for A.
shoes in MA)-Larger trade w/R. -mutual barter of CA f for iron brisker after establishment of Fort ROSSI 812-trade w/ other missions-R. Better supplied than Californio on manufactured goods. .
Mexico independent in1821-trade w/all nations-special relation w/R. (no tax)-CA agricultural declined afterl 832 bc rule for secularization of CA mission-R. turned to Hudson Bay Company for food-sold Fort Ross1841-connection w/CA ended.
Early American Settlement: 1 . Johann Augustus Sutter(Swiss)settled CA1839-held large lands in Sacramento Valley(lndian slavery)-offered support for A. attracted A. settlers more than Oregon- aware they are interlopers-settled near Stutter, not clustered Californios along coast.
2. 840s immigrants didn’t intermix w/ Californios/conform S. ways-taking over land-1846,Bear Flag Revolt declaring independence-confirmed by Guadalupe Hidalgol 848-CA viewed as remote&sparse frontier,but great potential-Polk coveted harbor in San Diego&Francisco as basis for trade w/ Asia-still a dream in 1848.
Gold! 1 . James Marshall noticed nugget in Sutter’s Mi111848-Stutter’s employees panning for gold-reached east by autumn-spirit of adventure aroused by M-A. War turned to CA(EI Dorado)-49ers came-transformed ranching CA to teeming&tumultuous community- most came A. 80%)expanded their horizon-2nd nearby M. (13%)-Rest E. /Asia.
2. Chinese arrived more 20,000 inl 852-hardworking-came as sojourners(alone)- distinctive culture& appearance&Chinatown-added economic competition to white- aroused A. hostility-imposed tax on foreign minersl 852-Chinese immigration sharply curtailed. 3. Gold rush(1849) led to rapid growth of San Francisco-popul.
grew- suggested wealth not based on gold, but feed,clothing,housing-German Levi Strauss created tough pant-San Francisco stabilized-major city-statehood in 1850. Mining Camps: 1 .Mining camps boomed instantly as San Francisco-soon empty again-dirty&dreary places-miners lived in tent/hovel(no time to build house)-monotonous meal- cheerless,uncomfortable&unhealthy existence-sometimes distracted by saloon,gambling hall&prostitute crib-most were unsuccessful-surface gold soon exhausted-deeper require$&machine-became wage earner of large mining concerns. 2. More reliable way to earn$ is to supply miners-gamblers&saloonkeepers- also transient-majority women prostitutes-most died,some married/rich-others wife(earned good$ as domestic worker)-Violence constant in mining areas,many racial iscrimination against C,M&A.
F. -violence/using law(tax)-few community 3. Gold rush ended-mining camps were temporary communities-ghost towns-caused CA booming popul. Thriving agriculture&corporate mining industry-also left CA much larger,affuent&cultural sophisticated popul. -most multicultural in the nation-racism against C&M remained. 4. Permanent scars:extermination of NA,dispossession of Californios,racial animosity against C in particular,repeated rushes-lack of stable communities&worsens racial tensions.
The Politics of Manifest Destiny: 1 .Froml 845t048,nation increased70%-nation took shape-pushed by economic esires&A. cultural superiority-emergence of divisive slavery issue(dominant issue in national politics). The Wilmot Proviso: 1. 1846,most Whigs(Webster) opposed Polk’s belligerent expansionism on antislavery ground-feared slavery-not heard-popular enthusiasm for war led Whig congressmen supporting for war-Democrat congressman of PA David Wilmot reopened sectional conflict-proposed Wilmot Proviso that forbidden slavery in new M. ands- controversial-S. Whig+Democrat against-N.
Whig supported it-sectional interest over party loyalty-triggered first breakdown national party system& reopened lavery debate. 2. Wilmot Proviso controversial-postponed during M-A War-can’t avoid after Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo-debate bitterer&longer-fght&threat occur-neither party strong bc lack of both N&S-Expansion led to party division§ional conflicts. The Free-soil Movement: 1 .David Wilmot proposed law bc pressure of practical politics-Liberty Partyl 840by abolitionist was strong-taking votes from Democrat&Whigs-neither party could deny the strength of Liberty Party- Liberty Party uncompromising stance against slavery:prohibit slavery states to Union,end slavery in DC,abolish interstate slave rade(vital to cotton),&denying office for slaveholder-strong in N. (Election of 1844) 2,Liberty Party too radical-N. realized S.
would leave before accept-Free-Soil Party adjust from abolitionist principles to practical politic:morality of slavery to dangers of slavery-linked w/expansion, supported by most A. sectional politics 3. Free-soilers allow slavery in S. (preserving Union),but refuse extension-stated slavery would destroy N.
freedom&individualism&unfair for N. farmers-Free-Soil”antiblack”not antislavery-opposed blacks to enter W. Bc don’t consider equality for them-“whitemanism. ” The Election of 1848: 1 sentiment surrounded lection of 1848- each candidate must state position on slavery-TX,CA,NM all incorporated in union-Democrat candidate Lewis Cass w/popular sovereignty-based on Constitution(suffrage depended on states)-state legislatures belongs to different parties-unable to resolve. . Popular sovereignty vague on time to decide-hoped to win in both N-Whig nominated war hero Zachary Taylor(LA slave holder)-remained silent on the slavery issue(privately against)-hope to run as national hero above sectional politics-vagueness angered N-Free-soil Buren stirred election(took votes from N.
) Democrat-Taylor won-died-change of national unity lost.