CHAPTER 1 A) Chapter Overview: The Renaissance, which occurred from the 1300s to the 1600s, consisted of the rise of the five major city-states, the rise of humanism, and a multitude of patronage in the arts. The Italian Renaissance differed from the Northern Renaissance in that the Italian Renaissance was more secular, and in the North the focus was more on church and social reforms. Later, during the Age of Exploration, technological advances paved the way for exploration and conquest. Corruption in the Catholic church led to major reforms and the spread of Protestantism. Finally, the Catholic
Reformation with the Council of Trent brought back Catholic doctrine. B) -rop 5 people- * Girolamo Savonarola – (1452-1498) – unofficial leader of Florence **significance- wanted to get rid of all of the corruption of Florence, so he led a theocracy there *** **done by – Karen Wentworth * Niccolo Machiavelli -(1469-1527) **info – wrote The Prince which was the quintessential political treatise of the 16th century ***stated that “the ends Justify the means. ” **significance-work was extremely influential because it explained how rulers should be aggressive like a lion but also cunning like a fox. * **done by- Karen Wentworth * Christopher Columbus -(1451-1506) **info – reached the Bahamas, thought he thought he had reached the Indies west of India *** Ferdinand and Isabella financed his voyages because Spain wanted to compete with Portuguese expansion **significance- began an era of European exploration and domination of the New World *** *Zwingli -(1484-1531) **info – established a theocracy in Zurich *** contrasted with Luther because he saw the Eucharist as only symbolic **significance- became the first dispute among Protestants dealing with doctrine, nd they split at the Colloquy of Marburg *** *Henry VIII -(1509-1547 **info – wanted an annulment from his wife, Catherine of Aragon *** wanted a son, and he wanted to marry Anne Boleyn **significance- breaks away from the church and forms the Church of England, and made the king the head of the Church in England *** C) -rop 5 Events: * humanism **dates – During the Renaissance **info – revival of antiquity in philosophy, literature, and art *** **significance-consisted of a strong belief in individualism and the potential of human beings, and it focused of studying ancient languages. * * 95 Theses **dates – On October 31, 1517 **info – Luther nailed up this doctrine which criticized the selling of indulgences and questioned the scriptural authority of the pope to grant them *** **significance- This began the large Reformation movement *”God, glory, gold **dates – 15th and 16th century **info – main motives for exploration and conquest **significance- motives cause the Age of Exploration begin, and pushed explorers to continue their voyages. *** * Council of Trent – 1545 to 1563 **info – established Catholic dogma, approved the Index Of Forbidden Books *** *significance-established many church reforms during the Catholic “Counter” Reformation. Columbian Exchange- **dates – 15th and 16th centuries **info – exploration ushered in the Columbian Exchange **significance-Europe brought small pox and other diseases to the New World; however, Europe greatly benefited from the potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, gold, and silver it received from the New World. *** D) Essay- CHAPTER 1 ESSAY: To what extent were women impacted by the Renaissance? Women were greatly impacted by the Renaissance , and different groups of women were effected differently. Most women enjoyed some benefits but very mostly viewed as “ornaments”, wealthy women tried to rise up in status and independence, and peasant women’s status did not significantly change. Most women gained some recognition after the Renaissance, but traditional views still held true.
Women gained an increased access to education and learning opportunities. However, women were still viewed as “ornaments” to men. Women were expected to make themselves pleasing to men and to stay chaste until marriage. This double standard where men were allowed to not stay chaste caused ome controversy during the Renaissance causing some wealthy women to rise up. Some Renaissance noblewomen were inspired by Christine de Pisan to raise awareness over the debate of the proper role of women in society. Isabella d’Este was considered the “First Lady’ of the Renaissance and she set an example for women to break away from their traditional roles as mere ornaments to their husbands.
She also founded a school for young women and promotes education and patronage of the arts. Finally, Artemesia Gentileschi was the first female artist to gain recognition in the post-Renaissance era. This proved that women were determined to rise up in the post-Renaissance society. In contrast to the progressive movement of upper class women, peasant women’s status did not change significantly compared to the Middle Ages. They normally followed the European family plan, which consisted of solely the nuclear family. Also, marriages in the lower classes were based on economic considerations, not love, and they normally married before 20. Also, after the Renaissance, more lower class women became prostitutes.
Overall, women were impacted by the Renaissance in many ways. While women experienced some gains, their position in consideration to men was not very good, and many wealthy women began to rise up. However, despite these impacts, most lower class women did not experience a change in status, but their marriage and expectation slightly shifted. Rubric: Thesis- this essay has a strong thesis that fully answers the prompt and alludes to Understanding- Each body paragraph uses clear examples and background information to show full understanding of the material. (2 point) Evidence- All of the examples used are very relevant and clear. They add depth to the essay as a whole. 2 points) Analysis- The analysis of the information is good, however it could be stronger. Overall, It does show full knowledge of the subject. (1 point) Organization- The essay is organized into three clear and well chosen groups. This is very good organization. (2 points) Score: 9 E) -rop Dog- Luther: Luther can be considered the top dog for this chapter because he began the whole Protestant Reformation. This was because of his 95 Theses. In 1517 Luther nailed his theses to the Wittenburg church door. This document criticized the selling f indulgences and questioned the scriptural authority of the pope to even grant the indulgences. Luther stepped out and challenged church authority, and made his mark in history.
In his debate with Johann Eck, Luther denied the infallibility of the pope, and this was where he could no longer step back. Luther’s theology of reform consisted of many new beliefs. He said that salvation could only be achieved through faith alone, the Bible was the sole authority of the church, and that the church consisted of a “priesthood of all believers. ” At the Diet of Worms in 1521, Charles demanded that he ecant his writings, but Luther refused. Because of this, Luther was outlawed byt the Holy Roman Empire by the Edict of Worms. I think Luther can be considered the top dog for this era because he began a whole reform movement, and stepped out to criticize what was going on. He paved the way for more religious reformers to come.
F) Timeline- 1300’s-1400’s- Florence ruled by the Medic’s was the center of the Renaissance (social) 1400-1468- development of the printing press (social) 1450- caravel invented (social) 1454- Peace of Lodi (political) 1492- Columbus reached the Bahamas (economic) 498- Vasco da Gama made his all water route to India (economic) 1 500’s- Rome was the center of the Renaissance (political) 1513- In Praise of Folly (cultural) 1513- The Prince published (cultural) 1516- Utopia (cultural) 1521- Diet of Worms (political) 1521- Cortes conquers the Aztecs (economic) 1524-1525 Peasants’ War (economic) 1527- Sack of Rome (political) 1528- Book of the Courtier (social) 1534- Act of Supremacy (political) 1536- Institutes of Christian Religion (cultural) 1555- Peace of Augsburg (political) 1600’s-1700’s- English came to the East Coast North America (economic) G) CHAPTER 2 Phillip II – 1556-1598 **info – son of Charles V, wanted to impose Catholicism in Europe *** built the Escorial, which symbolized the power of Philip and his commitment to his Catholic crusade during his reign, Spain became the dominant country in Europe *** *Cromwell- -1599-1658 **info – Puritan Independent and military leader of the Roundheads *** led his New Model Army to victory Purge removed all non Puritans from parliament leaving a “Rump Parliament” *** * James l- – 1603-1625 taxation and demands of free speech *** unwisely flaunted his wealth, damaged the prestige of the monarchy Charles l- – 1625-1649 **info – against Parliament and dissolved them in 1629, ruled as an absolute monarch without the Parliament *** **significance-had “short parliament” and “long parliament” * Peter the Great- – 1682-1725 **info – defeated the revolt of the Strelskigreatly concerned with military power ***gained the Window in the West in the Baltic Sea modernization and westernization were his main focuses ***made government more efficient **done by – Karen Wentoworth * 30 Years’ War – 1618-1648 **info – consisted of the Bohemian phase, the Danish phase, the Swedish phase, and he French phase *** caused by the failure of the Peace of Augsburg **significance-Germany was physically devastated *** ended the wars of religion *Divine right of kings- **dates – during the Age of Absolutism (16th and 17th century) **info – the belief of absolute sovereignty based from the divine *** **significance- contributed to absolutism, absolute monarchs, and mainly Louis XIV * Golden Age of Spain **dates – 16th century **info -Ferdinand and Isabella centralized power, reached its peak under Philip II inquisition continued during the golden age *** **dates – 17th century *info – when government power is limited by law, played a big role in England *** **significance- delicate balance between the power of government and the rights and liberties of individuals *** * Petition of Right **dates – 1628 **info – Parliament tried to get the king to grant basic rights in return for tax increases *** only parliament had power to levy taxes,right to trial,due process of law **significance- parliament was dissolved in 1629 Louis XIV Louis XIV, the “Sun King,” who lived from 1643 to 171 5, was the quintessential absolute ruler in European history.
I would call him a top dog because he was an extremely powerful and effective absolute monarch who had a huge impact on France. During Louis’ reign, France became the undisputed major power in Europe, and the French culture dominated. Louis continued the intendant system and kept control over the peasantry. His grand Versailles Palace gave him the opportunity to gain absolute control over the nobility. He also considered himself head of the Gallican church, revoked the Edict of Nantes, and supported mercantilism. Finally, he fought wars; however, although they were initially successful, they ventually became economically ruinous. His wars, such as the War of the League of Augsburg and the War of Spanish Succession, cost France its economy.
The high taxes required to support the military led to mass starvation in some areas. These financial and social tensions paved the way for the French Revolution, and this is how Louis XIV left his impact of France. CHAPTER 3 The scientific Revolution consisted of many advances in science and in the scientific knowledge of the century. New scientific methods evolved from the revolution, and scientific views shifted from earlier beliefs. New discoveries were made, and this movement led directly to the Enlightenment. The emergence of a time period. Enlightened philosophers wrote numerous works expressing their ideas, and Enlightened despots ruled with great influences from the Enlightened period. Galileo- -1564-1642 **info – developed the laws of motion ***validated the heliocentric view with the aid of a telescope his findings became controversial with the Catholic church *** Catholic church declared his theory to be heretical * Bacon- – 1561-1626 **info – formed the empirical method that had been used by Brahe and Galileo *** ormed the inductive method for scientific experimentation **significance- his inductive method combined with Descartes deductive reason which formed into the scientific method *** * Jean-Jacques Rousseau- – 1712-1778 **info – wrote the Social Contract and believed that too much property and not enough consideration of people was a cause of social injustice *** idea of general will; majority should control the nation believed that man was a noble savage *** ood state of nature but corrupted Catherine the Great- – 1762-1796 – least “enlightened” ***imported western culture into Russia ***restricted torture **allowed religious toleration ***However, serfdom became even more severe **Significance- major territorial growth *** annexed Polish territory under the 3 partitions of Poland **done by Wentworth *Joseph ll- – Karen **info – the greatest of the Enlightened monarchs, but the most ineffective *** **significance- However, the empire declined under his reign; Austria was defeated several * Principle of universal gravitation **dates – c. 687 **info -every body in the universe attracts every other body in the universe in an exact mathematical relationship ***explains the natural laws of motion *significance- laid the foundation for the Enlightenment view of a deistic God *** *Deism- – 170091800s **info – belief that the existence of God was a rational explanation for the universe and that God was a deistic creator; created the universe and then left it to work like a clock **significance- the universe was governed by natural law not by a personal God *** grew out of Newtons theories of natural law * Spirit of the Laws **dates – 1748 **info – called for the separation of powers in government into three branches to prevent tyranny and promote liberty *** principle of checks and balances *significance-significant impact on the creation of the U. S.
Constitution and the French Revolution *** * War of Austrian Succession **info – Frederick annexed Silesia which violated the Pragmatic Sanction, *** **significance- Prussia defeated Austria *** Prussia gained Silesia * Seven Years’ War – 1756-1763 **info – Maria Teresa wanted to gain back Silesia from Prussia;France and Austria allied against Prussia *** **significance- Prussia severely suffered and was on the verge of catastrophic defeat *** Treaty of Paris gave Prussia permanent control of Silesia **done by – Karen D) Essay-CHAPTER 3 ESSAY: To what extent is the term “Enlightened Despot” appropriate when describing the reigns of Frederick the Great, Catherine the Great, and Joseph II? When talking in terms of “Enlightened Despots,” different rulers embodied that term more than others.
Frederick the Great was greatly influenced by the Enlightenment, Catherine the Great was he least “enlightened,” and Joseph II was considered the most Enlightened. Frederick the Great was one of the greatest rulers in history who was hugely influenced by the enlightenment. Frederick had many Enlightened reforms that focused on increasing the power of the state. He allowed religious freedom, promoted education, reduced censorship, and abolished capital punishment. These reforms truly reflect the Enlightened ideals of promoting the good of the people. Catherine the Great was considered one of the greatest rulers in history as well, but most likely the least “enlightened. ” Catherine needed the support of the nobility, so she gave them complete control of the serfs.
Nobles reached the height of their position, and the serfs suffered terribly. This reflects how she was not very enlightened because while she did allow some religious toleration and imported estern culture, only the state and the nobility benefited. Most of the Russian population did not have any benefits from her reforms, and serfdom became even more severe. Finally, Joseph II could be considered the greatest of the Enlightened Despots. He made numerous great reforms; however, his reign was significantly less effective than that of Catherine and Frederick. Joseph abolished serfdom and allowed freedom of religion and civic rights to Protestants and Jews.
He also reformed the Judicial system, abolished torture, and established hospitals. All of his reforms were focused n the welfare of the state and community which reflects the Enlightened mind set. Although he was very Enlightened in his reforms the empire still declined during his reign. Overall, these three despots all embodied the Enlightened vies in some way, however, some more than others. Frederick the Great and Joseph II were very Enlightened in their reforms for the whole community, while Catherine the Great was less Enlightened as she only benefited the nobility. Thesis- This essay has a very strong thesis that fully answers the question. It is clear and refers to each grouping very well. (2 points)