Annotated Bibliography Section: WomenDolan, Kathleen. “Voting for Women in the “Year of the Woman”.

” American Journal of Political Science 42, no. 1 (1998): 272-93. doi:10.2307/2991756. This journal explores the idea that there are people with certain demographiccharacteristics that are more likely to vote for a woman congressionalcandidate. These characteristics give an important insight into what influencesthese voters to vote for a candidate. It especially focuses on the Year of theWoman of 1992 where a record amount of woman ran to be elected as majorparty candidates for congress. 53 woman were voted into office.

This was animportant event because it highlighted the fact that gender was relevant in thepolitics of America. Plutzer, Eric, and John F. Zipp. “Identity Politics, Partisanship, and Voting forWomen Candidates.” The Public Opinion Quarterly 60, no. 1 (1996): 30-57.

http://www.jstor.org.

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chaffey.idm.oclc.org/stable/2749497. This journal expands on the year 1992 where 14 woman ran a politicalcampaign not just as politicians but as representatives of woman. The authorsfind that there is a direct connection between the gender of the voter and thegender of the politician running for office. This event indicates a change in theway politicians are being voted for, where the effect of genders voting forofficials of the same gender could influence the public policies brought forth.

Welch, Susan. “Are Women More Liberal than Men in the U. S. Congress?”Legislative Studies Quarterly 10, no. 1 (1985): 125-34. http://www.jstor.

org.chaffey.idm.oclc.org/stable/440119. Susan Welch writes about the idea that gender plays a big difference in theway Americans vote seeing as more woman are prone to be liberal incongress. She studies the differences between votes and policies in a group ofmembers of the House of Representatives.

This is important because it couldchange the way voters decide their candidate seeing as woman are more likelyto have liberal views as opposed to men. Would they be more accepting ofliberal candidates or not. These decisions can influence American politics inthe future. Irvin Alfaro 1 Watkins, Valethia. “Votes for Women: Race, Gender, and W.E.

B. Du Bois’sAdvocacy of Woman Suffrage.” Phylon (1960-) 53, no. 2 (2016): 3-19.

http://www.jstor.org.

chaffey.idm.oclc.org/stable/phylon1960.53.2.

3. Valethia Watkins goes over the works of a prominent writer many call thesuccessor of Frederick Douglas, W.E.

B. Du Bois. She analyses the racialtension that existed during the Woman’s Suffrage movement. She helps usunderstand the many obstacles and hurdles woman went through, especiallyblack woman, to be able to vote in America.

This movement proved thatwoman wanted a change in politics because they felt they weren’t beingrepresented by the men officials. This movement also marks the start of theimpact woman will slowly begin having on American politics and how theyprovide a different approach for voters. Zipp, John F., and Eric Plutzer. “Gender Differences in Voting for FemaleCandidates: Evidence From the 1982 Election.” The Public Opinion Quarterly49, no.

2 (1985): 179-97. http://www.jstor.org.chaffey.idm.

oclc.org/stable/2748826. These two authors discuss the emergence of the idea that woman arebecoming a strong political force.

A steady rise in support for woman to beelected officials could increase pressure on both Democrats and Republicans.This paper specifically analyzes the voting that took place in five 1982elections where woman were the candidates running for high-level positions.The study found that there was no distinct correlation between the sex ofvoters and the sex of candidates that was clear because of the lack of data dueto a scarcity of woman running and being voted for office. Section: Hispanics Jackson, Melinda S. “Priming the Sleeping Giant: The Dynamics of LatinoPolitical Identity and Vote Choice.” Political Psychology 32, no. 4 (2011):691-716.

http://www.jstor.org.

chaffey.idm.oclc.org/stable/41262886. This article evaluates the increase in political potential of Latinos and whythere are referred to as the “sleeping giant” in American politics. Even thoughlatinos account for more than 30% of the population in several major statesthey are still behind whites and blacks when it comes to voting.

This growingethnic group captures the attention of both Republicans and Democrats, withDemocrats gaining their overall favor by taking on issues such as immigration Irvin Alfaro 2 and economic security. With this growing trend many politicians can start togain popularity and voters by appealing to Latinos and issuing public policiesthat benefit them. This, however, affects other ethnic groups that don’t benefitfrom the policies for the Latino population. McConnaughy, Corrine M., Ismail K. White, David L.

Leal, and Jason P. Casellas.”A Latino on the Ballot: Explaining Coethnic Voting Among Latinos and theResponse of White Americans.” The Journal of Politics 72, no. 4 (2010):1199-211. doi:10.

1017/s0022381610000629. This article examines the important of the ethnicity of a candidate and theresistance that Latino candidates face with the White-American population.The authors bring light to important topics that can shape the political votinglandscape. A big question that begs for concern is will Latinos unify to form apolitical identity? Or will they separate into different segments such as class,experience, origin, and racial identification? The authors argue that theethnicity of a candidate does in fact play a huge role for White non-hispanicvoters. Nagler, Jonathan, and R. Michael Alvarez. “Latinos, Anglos, Voters, Candidates,and Voting Rights.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 153, no.

1 (2004):393-432. doi:10.2307/4150628. This paper compares and contrasts the voting behaviors of Latinos and WhiteAmericans in California. They conclude that it makes little sense to combineLatinos into one political group because of the diversity of Latino views.Therefore Latinos should not be seen as an overwhelming bloc in elections.Latinos are separated into groups base on economic status and politicalpreferences and opinions. This is entirely due to the origins of voters andlocation.

This study is important because it points out the fact that ethnicitydoesn’t play a major role in the voting behavior of Hispanics. Cassel, Carol A. “Hispanic Turnout: Estimates from Validated Voting Data.”Political Research Quarterly 55, no. 2 (2002): 391-408. doi:10.2307/3088058. Answered in this article is the question of whether Hispanics vote based ontheir relationship with their country of origin or if they vote the same as othersthat live under the same circumstances.

The study found that Hispanics votethe same as White-Americans and African-Americans that live with the samesituations. Although it is very difficult to prove why Hispanics have a low Irvin Alfaro 3 turnout, Cassel suggests it might be due to the fact the Hispanics lack thepolitical connections and political history that White-Americans and African-Americans possess. It may also be that most Hispanics are young and are notwell educated in politics compared to non-Hispanics. Pachon, Harry, and Louis DeSipio. “Latino Elected Officials in the 1990s.” PS:Political Science and Politics 25, no. 2 (1992): 212-17.

doi:10.2307/419710. Many years ago the Latino community was not very active at the nationallevel.

This article tries to understand why the sudden outburst of the Latinopopulation possibly becoming politically inclined is important and how the”Hispanic” vote is becoming a crucial point to consider. More specifically thearticle analyzes the Latino elected officials in the 1990’s. Two clear factorsthat play a role into why Latinos may not be voting is the fact the over half ofthe latino population is comprised of young people and non-citizens. Thestudy examined in this article also found that more Hispanic woman vote thanmen. And although the number of Hispanic woman elected as governmentofficials is low, it is still higher than the national average of woman in electedoffices in the United States. Section: African-Americans Bentele, Keith G.

, and Erin E. O’Brien. “Jim Crow 2.

0? Why States Consider andAdopt Restrictive Voter Access Policies.” Perspectives on Politics 11, no. 4(2013): 1088-116. http://www.jstor.

org.chaffey.idm.oclc.org/stable/43280932. This articles discuss the fact that states are imposing more regulations tovoting, restricting people from being able to vote, calling it Jim Crow 2.0.These restrictions are hindering the overall turnout of African-American votesdue to the fact that the study found these regulations heavily shaped by racialconsiderations.

Many of the states that proposed such regulations wereunsurprisingly southern states compared to north and western states that hadlittle to no voter restrictions recently passed. These regulations are crucial inthat they deter African-Americans from voting and lower their turnout rate.This could lead to them being underrepresented. Donovan, Todd. “Obama and the White Vote.” Political Research Quarterly 63,no. 4 (2010): 863-74. http://www.

jstor.org.chaffey.idm.oclc.org/stable/25749256. Irvin Alfaro 4 This articles investigates the possibility that white voters who lived close to,or in large African-American communities were more resistant to presidentBarack Obama. This study provides us with data that proves African-American candidates receive less votes by the white population especially inthe American South.

With White-Americans being less receptive to coloredcandidates, a colored candidate must rely heavily on the African-Americanvote or shape his public policy to favor White-Americans. A study in 1980also found that 16 percent of white voters in America would be in oppositionof a black presidential candidate for no other reason than race. Hajnal, Zoltan L. “Who Loses in American Democracy? A Count of VotesDemonstrates the Limited Representation of African Americans.” TheAmerican Political Science Review 103, no. 1 (2009): 37-57.

http://www.jstor.org.

chaffey.idm.oclc.org/stable/27798485. In this article Zoltan studies the voting data of several elections and examinesthe losers of these elections. He finds out that across many elections in theUnited States, African-Americans are consistently more likely than any otherrace or group to lose the election, this begs the question about equality inAmerican politics. Zoltan finds that minorities are losing these elections dueto the system of democracy that is currently put in place.

Griffin, John D., and Michael Keane. “Descriptive Representation and theComposition of African American Turnout.” American Journal of PoliticalScience 50, no.

4 (2006): 998-1012. http://www.jstor.org.chaffey.idm.oclc.

org/stable/4122929. This study goes over the turnout levels of districts with many African-Americans and why liberal African-Americans are more likely to vote whenthey are descriptively represented. And more conservative African-Americansare less inclined to vote. Gryski, Gerard S., Gary Zuk, and Deborah J.

Barrow. “A Bench That Looks LikeAmerica? Representation of African Americans and Latinos on the FederalCourts.” The Journal of Politics 56, no. 4 (1994): 1076-086. http://www.jstor.

org.chaffey.idm.oclc.org/stable/2132074.

This article focuses on positions held in national politics, especially federaljudgeships, by African-Americans and Latinos and what factors contributed tothem be appointed. The study found that the results were different for both Irvin Alfaro 5 groups, indicating that different views influence each group of voters. African-Americans were more inclined to vote for a candidate based on political anddemographic elements, meanwhile Latinos were more inclined to vote for acandidate based on socioeconomic standing. This indicates that African-Americans form a more unified stance in politics and representation whileLatinos are more spread out and diverse, indicating they vote based on factorsoutside of ethnicity and other political angles. Section: Asian-Americans Diaz, Maria-Elena D. “Asian Embeddedness and Political Participation: SocialIntegration and Asian-American Voting Behavior in the 2000 PresidentialElection.

” Sociological Perspectives 55, no. 1 (2012): 141-66. doi:10.1525/sop.2012.

55.1.141.

Diaz examines the political participation of Asian-Americans in the U.S. andtheir social integration during the 2000 Presidential Election. She finds thatAsians are becoming part of the middle-class America that exists in oursociety with regards to their achievements and views. This is importantbecause this means candidates should start focusing on appealing to the Asiancommunity by supporting public policies that benefit Asians.

However,research indicates that Asians are not participating when it comes to votingand that political integration does not exist. Since the CPS started collectingdata on the number of Asians voting in 1992, they found Asians have voted atrates significantly lower than whites and blacks, with the 2000 electionrepresenting the low point in Asian voter turnout so far. Jang, Seung-Jin. “Get Out on Behalf of Your Group: Electoral Participation ofLatinos and Asian Americans.” Political Behavior 31, no.

4 (2009): 511-35.http://www.jstor.org.

chaffey.idm.oclc.org/stable/40587297. Jang explores the participation of Asians and Latinos during elections. Withboth of these groups increasing in population, it is important to understand therole they play in American politics. The study he performed found that thereare factors that have a significant impact on individual participation of thesegroups that go beyond the traditional characteristics held important by themajority. The results proved that for both groups, they are more willing to votethus having a higher turnout when they are surrounded by fellow Asians orLatinos.

This means in communities where they are not surrounded by Asians Irvin Alfaro 6 or Latinos they are less likely to vote, which causes them to beunderrepresented in their communities. Junn, Jane, and Natalie Masuoka. “Asian American Identity: Shared Racial Statusand Political Context.” Perspectives on Politics 6, no. 4 (2008): 729-40. http://www.jstor.org.

chaffey.idm.oclc.org/stable/20446825.

This article focuses on the large quantity of immigrants coming to the UnitedStates and how they are transforming the political landscape of the nation.With 25 percent of new Americans coming from Asia, it is crucial to try to getto understand their views and political stance, as they are becoming a decisiveswing vote in elections in California, New York, and Washington. Are Asian-Americans unified in political views or are they highly diverse? The studyfinds that Asian-Americans are seemingly not unified and their vote relies onfactors of their current status. Jacob, Anil G. “Asian American Political Participation: Research Challenges foran Emerging Minority.

” PS: Political Science and Politics 39, no. 1 (2006):103-06. http://www.jstor.org.chaffey.idm.oclc.

org/stable/20451687. Jacob investigates the impact Asian-Americans could have on Americanpolitics and tries to find their identification in the political world. Jacob foundthat the reason Asian-Americans have such low turnout rates is due to the factthat there are many obstacles in the way such as language, lack ofunderstanding of the American political system, and concerns with mother-country policy issues.

They also do not vote en bloc, having no clearalignment with democrats or republicans. What puzzles scholars, is thatAsian-Americans are the second most generous political donors, indicatingthat they have a strong interest in U.S. politics yet their low votingparticipation says otherwise. Lien, Pei-te. “Asian Americans and Voting Participation: Comparing Racial andEthnic Differences in Recent U.

S. Elections.” The International MigrationReview 38, no. 2 (2004): 493-517. http://www.jstor.org.chaffey.

idm.oclc.org/stable/27645387.

This article explores the importance of race and ethnicity in the participationof Asian-Americans in recent U.S. elections. The research reviews votingbehavior of Asian-Americans from 1994-2000 to try to understand who isvoting and why. Although the Asian population is often lumped together, they Irvin Alfaro 7 are without a doubt a very diverse group that ranges wide in terms ofpopulation size, income, and education. The Asian population grew by 72percent from 1990 to 2000, a rate that is higher than growth of Latinos andAfrican-Americans.

They continue to have higher educational achievementsthan White-Americans and also income. Irvin Alfaro 8