According to Catford, (1965, p.1)1 “Translation is anoperation performed on languages: aprocess of substituting a text in one language for a text in another. Clearly,then, any theory of translation must draw upon a theory of language – a generallinguistic theory.” Whereas, according to Newmark (1982, p.7)2 he defines translation as”a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/orstatement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language”.In his opinion, translating a text should begin with a detailed analysis of atext, such as the intention of the text and of the translator, its readership,attitude, to name just a few. Moreover, André Lefevere (1992, 2004a, p.
12)3 sees translation process as”a rewriting of an original text”. On the other hand, Petrus Danielus Huetius (cited in (Lefevere, 1992,2004b, p.1) regarding translation says that it is a”text written in a well-known language which refers to and represents a text ina language which is not as well known.” From my own perspective, this is themost relevant definition of a translation made within the tradition representedhere, because it presents many, if not all of the relevant questions at once.
” Subsequently, Walter Benjamin (1999, p.279) regarding the realtranslation adds that “A real translation is transparent; it does not cover theoriginal, does not block its light, butallows the pure language, as though reinforced by its own medium, to shineupon the original all the more fully.This may be achieved, above all, by a literal rendering of the syntax whichproves words rather than sentences to be the primary element of the translator.For if the sentence is the wall before the language of the original,literalness is the arcade.
Based on Saussure’s description of language, Derrida observes thatmeaning made by language depends on systematic play of difference. As regards the cultural effects on translation,the Canadian translation theorist Sherry Simon(2006, p.16) says that “Translationplays great role in communication and manipulates cultural exchange.” In her pointof view, various translations are “maneuvers that represent shifts in culturalhistory or which consciously exploit the limit, raising the temperature ofcultural exchange.” Several forms of culturalimplications for translation are possible ranging from lexical content andsyntax to ideologies and ways of life in a given culture.
Cultural aspects andto what degree it is needed or wanted to translate them into the targetlanguage should be also considered or determined by the translator. The notion of culture is essential to considering the implications fortranslation. Accordingly, Nida (1964, p.
130)regarding both linguistic and cultural differences between the SL and the TLand concludes that “differences between cultures may cause more severe complicationsfor the translator than do differences in language structure”. Thecultural implications for translation and lexical concerns have considerableimportance. Relating to this, Bassnett (1991, p. 23)4 states that, “thetranslator must tackle the second language text in such a way that the targetlanguage version will correspond to the second language version. As a result, when translating, it is important to point out not only thelexical impact on the target language reader, but also the way in whichcultural aspects may be perceived and make translating decisions appropriately.When translating, culture and language must be considered because of theirclose linkage to each other. Regarding the importance of the translation process in communication,Newmark (1988, p.96)5 proposes componentialanalysis describing it as “the most accurate translation procedure, whichexcludes the culture and highlights the message”.
While regarding retranslation Venuti (1995, p.305)6 adds that, “when a text isretranslated at a latter period in time, it frequently differs from the firsttranslation because of the changes in the historical and cultural context.”1 Catford, J. C. (1965)A Linguistic Theory of Translation, Oxford: Oxford University Press.2 Newmark, P. (1982) Approaches to Translation.
Oxford: Pergamon.3 Lefevere, A. (1992, 2004a). Translation, rewriting and themanipulation of literary fame. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language EducationPress.4 Bassnett, S.
and Lefevere, A. (eds) (1991) Translation, History andCulture. London and New York: Printer Publishers.5 Newmark, P. (1988, 2001). A textbook of translation. Shanghai:Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.
6 Venuti, L. (1995) The Translator’s Invisibility: A History ofTranslation. London and New York: Routledge.