AbstractCybercrimes are responsible for thedisruption of typical computer functions and contains been proven to cause theparticular downfall of several companies and also personal agencies.
This studypaper aims to talk about following areas of Cybercrimes: this is, why they willoccur, regulations governing these, methods regarding committing cybercrimes,which they have an effect on, and cybercrime reduction procedures. A lot morespecifically, this papers will look into one principal example regardingcybercrime “hacking”. The record will present the use and further advancementof engineering has amplified several types of crimes for instance theftoffenses and terrorism. Furthermore, this record will exhibit statistical datathat may give a thought of how long cybercrimes provides increase on the periodof a decade or a lot more.IntroductionIn the modern technology-driven grow older, keeping our private informationprivate has become more hard. The the fact is, highly categorized details havebecome more open to public directories, because we’re more interconnected thanever before.
Our data can be obtained for almost any person to dig through forthis reason interconnectivity. This creates an adverse stigma that usingtechnology is actually dangerous simply because practically anybody can entryone’s personal information for a cost. Technology is constantly on the promiseto help ease our every day lives; nevertheless, there tend to be dangersassociated with using technologies. One from the main hazards of utilizingtechnology may be the threat associated with cybercrimes.Common online users may be unacquainted with cybercrimes, let alone how toproceed if these people fall target of cyber episodes. Many not guiltyindividuals drop victim in order to cybercrimes all over the world, especiallybecause technology is actually evolving in a rapid speed. Cybercrimes tend tobe any offences that harm another individual utilizing a computer along with anetwork. Cybercrimes may appear by problems surrounding transmission ofprivateness and discretion.
When privateness and private information isactually lost or even interrupted through unlawfully people, it gives method tohigh user profile crimes for example hacking, cyber terrorism, espionage,monetary theft, copyright laws infringement, spamming, cyber warfare and muchmore crimes that occur throughout borders. Cybercrimes sometimes happens toanybody once their own information is actually breach through an illegal user.(webopedia. com)Based on Norton, “over the final 18 several weeks, an threatening change offersswept over the internet.
The risk landscape as soon as dominated through theworms as well as viruses let loose by irresponsible hackers has become ruledwith a new variety of cybercriminals. Cybercrime is actually motivated throughfraud, typified through the bogus e-mail sent through “phishers” thattry to steal individual information” (Cybercrime 2011) Cybercrimes have theeffect of the success of the respective felony assets and also the downfall ofnumerous companies as well as personal organizations.Cybercrimes createanoverwhelming job for police force bureaussince they’reextremelytechnological offences. Law enforcement organizations should haveindividuals been trained in computer disciplinesand pc forensics to be able toaccurately check out computer offences or cybercrimes which have beencommitted. Furthermore, many says must modernize as well as generate laws,which disallows cybercrimes as well as outlines suitablepenalties for all thosecrimes. Cybercrimes will probably become much more frequent using the arrivalassociated with advance systems. It is essential that civilians, regulationofficials, and additional associates from the justice program are well-informedregarding cybercrimes to be able to diminish the actual threat which theycause.The objective of this paper would be to educate those who don’t understand whatare cybercrimes and it is importance within growing technical advance allthrough society.
Understanding the actual threat associated with cybercrimes isreally a very relevant issue simply because technology holds an excellentimpact upon our society in general. Cybercrime keeps growing every day timebecause because technological evolving in computers causes it to be very possiblefor anyone in order to steal without having physically doing harm to anyone dueto the lack associated with knowledge to everyone of exactly how cybercrimestend to be committed and how to protect on their own against this kind ofthreats which cybercrimes presents. This document will talk about severalfacets of Cybercrimes such as: defining the word, why cybercrimes happen, lawsregulating them, ways of committing cybercrimes, who’s affected, and avoidanceprocedures and much more. Definingthe ProblemCurrently, whenindividual talk about cybercrime, they may not understand the extent of thesecrimes. Many questions arise when the term cybercrime is brought into question.Some questions that arise are, “Does cybercrimes only done via the internet?”,”Cybercrimes are done via computers only?” and so on, however, traditionalcrimes such as theft and fraud that have been done via physical ways are nowbeen converted into digital resources and are now considered ascybercrimes.
But what are cybercrimes?A commonly accepteddefinition of this term is that a cybercrime is a “crime committed using acomputer and the internet to steal a person’s identity or sell contraband orstalk victims or disrupt operations with malevolent programs” (Definition ofCybercrimes).However, other definitions have constraints to anexpansivemeaningto more closelydescribe the word “cybercrime”. “.
Someof these definitions as follow:Ø NewWorld Encyclopedia defines it as”is a term used broadly to describe activity in which computers or computernetworks are the tool, target, or place of criminal activity. These categoriesare not exclusive and many activities can be characterized as falling in one ormore categories.” www.newworldencyclopedia.
org/entry/Cybercrime Ø Bukisa defines it as “It is this access to the technical specificationsof how the Internet and Internet technologies are implemented that allows anattacker to subvert systems, networks and the Internet for their own ends.”www.bukisa.com/articles/206_internet-security-concepts Ø Webopedia defines it as “Cybercrime encompasses any criminal act dealingwith computers and networks (called hacking). Additionally, cybercrime alsoincludes traditional crimes conducted through the Internet. For example; hatecrimes, telemarketing and Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit cardaccount thefts are considered to be cybercrimes when the illegal activities arecommitted through the use of a computer and the Internet.”http://www.
webopedia.com/TERM/C/cyber_crime.html Ø WiseGeek defines it as “Cybercrimes are generally defined as any type ofillegal activity that makes use of the Internet, a private or public network,or an in-house computer system. While many forms of cybercrime revolve aroundthe appropriation of proprietary information for unauthorized use, otherexamples are focused more on an invasion of privacy. As a growing problemaround the world, many countries are beginning to implement laws and otherregulatory mechanisms in an attempt to minimize the incidence of cybercrime.
” http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-cybercrime.htm Ø SearchSecurity defines it as “for any illegal activity that uses a computer asits primary means of commission. The U.S.
Department of Justice expands thedefinition of cybercrime to include any illegal activity that uses a computerfor the storage of evidence. http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/cybercrime Ø Wikipedia defines it as “Computer crime, or cybercrime, refers to any crimethat involves a computer and a network. 1 The computer may have been used inthe commission of a crime, or it may be the target.2 Netcrime refers, moreprecisely, to criminal exploitation of the Internet.
3 Issues surrounding thistype of crime have become high-profile, particularly those surrounding hacking,copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are alsoproblems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted,lawfully or otherwise.” http://en.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_crimeWhile there are many different definitions of cybercrimethey all have a few key concepts throughout. These key concepts are criminalactivity and the use or abuse of computers.
With these concepts in mind cybercrime can be easily defined as using a computer to commit a criminal act Cyber criminal offense includes anykind offelony behave coping with computer systems as well assystems (called hacking). Furthermore, cyber criminal offense additionallyconsists of conventional offences carried out with the Web. For instance;detest offences, telesales as well as Web scams, identification thievery, aswell as charge card accounts thefts tend to be regarded as cyber offences oncethe unlawful actions tend to be dedicated by using sometype of computer and also the Web.The definition of cyber safety isemployed to be able to reference the particularsafety supplied by means of on-line companies to be able toguard your online details.Having an improving level of folks acquiringlinked to World wide web, the particular safety dangers in whichresult in enormous hurt are usually improving furthermore.Types of Cyber Crime Causes of Cybercrimes & methods of committing There are many waysor means where cybercrimes can occur.
Here are a few causes and methods of howcybercrimes can be committed on a daily basis: Hacking, Theft of informationcontained in electronic form, Email bombing, Data diddling, Salami attacks,Denial of Service attack, Virus / worm attacks, Logic bombs, Trojan attacks,Internet time theft, and Web jacking. (http://www.naavi.org/pati/pati_cybercrimes_dec03.htm).v Hacking: In other words can bereferred to as the unauthorized access to any computer systems or network.
Thismethod can occur if computer hardware and software has any weaknesses which canbe infiltrated if such hardware or software has a lack in patching, securitycontrol, configuration or poor password choice.v Theft of information contained inelectronic form:This type of method occur when information stored in computersystems areinfiltrated and are altered or physically being seized via hard disks;removable storage media or other virtualmedium.v Email bombing:This is another form ofinternet misuse where individuals directs amass numbers of mail to the victimor an address in attempt to overflow the mailbox, which may be an individual ora company or even mail servers there by ultimately resulting into crashing.There are two methods of perpetrating an email bomb which include mass mailingand list linking.
v Data diddling: Is the changing of databefore or during an intrusion into the computer system. This kind of an occurrenceinvolves moving raw data just before a computer can processes it and then alteringit back after the processing is completed. v Salami attacks: This kind of crime isnormally consisting of a number of smaller data security attacks together endresulting in one major attack. This method normally takes place in thefinancial institutions or for the purpose of committing financial crimes. Animportant feature of this type of offence is that the alteration is so smallthat it would normally go unnoticed. This form of cybercrime is very common inbanks where employees can steal small amount and it’s very difficult to detector trace an example is the “Ziegler case”wherein a logicbomb penetrated the bank’s system, which deducted only 10 cents from everyaccount and deposited it in one particular account which is known as the “pennyshaving”.
v Denial of Service attack: Is basically where acomputer system becomes unavailable to it’s authorize end user. This form ofattack generally relates to computer networks where the computer of the victimis submerged with more requests than it can handle which in turn causing the pcto crash. E.
g. Amazon, Yahoo. Other incident occursNovember,2010 whistle blower site wikileaks.org got a DDoS attack. v Virus / worm attacks: Viruses are programsthat can embed themselves to any file. The program thencopiesitself and spreadsto other computers on a network which they affectanything on them, either by changingor erasing it. However, worms are not like viruses, they do not need the hostto attach themselves to but makeuseful copies of them and do this constantlytill they consume up all the available space on a computer’s memory. E.
g. lovebug virus, which affected at least 5 % of the computers around theworld. v Logic bombs:They are basically a setof instructions where can be secretly be execute into a program where if aparticular condition is true can be carried out the end result usually endswith harmful effects. This suggests that these programs are produced to dosomething only when a specific event (known as a trigger event) occurs. E.g. Chernobylvirus.
v Trojan attacks:The term suggests wherea program or programs mask themselves as valuable tools but accomplish damagingtasks to the computer. These programs are unlawful which flaccidly gainscontrol over another’s system by assuming the role as an authorised program. Themost common form of a Trojan is through e-mail. E.g. lady film director inthe U.S.
v Internet time thefts:This formis kinds of embezzlementswhere the fraudulentuses the Internet surfing hours ofthe victim as their own which can be complete byobtaining access to the loginID and the password, an example is Colonel Bajwa’s case- in thisincident the Internet hours were used up by a unauthorized person. v Web jacking: This is where thehacker obtains access and can control web site of another person, where he orshe can destroy or alter the information on the siteas they see fit to them.Thistype of method of cybercrime is done for satisfying political agendas or for purelymonetary means.
An example of such method was MIT (Ministry of InformationTechnology) was hacked by the Pakistani hackers whereas another was the ‘goldfish’ case, site was hacked and the information relating to goldfish was altered and the sum of $ 1 million was demanded. http://www.naavi.org/pati/pati_cybercrimes_dec03.htm.
Prevention and ProcedureInthis modern age, it seems almost impossible to avoid being a victim of cybercrime,with all the advancements in technology which make it easy for someone toperform cybercrimes. In light of this, there are some ways however to avoidbecoming a victim of cybercrime. Most internet browsers email service, andInternet providers provide a spam-blocking feature to prevent unwantedmessages, such as fraudulent emails and phishing emails, from getting to yourinbox.
However, every user must ensure to turn them on and do not turn them offwhatsoever. Also, users must install and keep up-to-date antivirus programs,firewalls and spyware checkers. Along with keeping them up to date, users mustmake sure that they run the scans regularly. There are many companies out therethat provide free software, but there are other you can purchase, along withthat of the many produced by the leading companies providers; in addition,those companies provide free version of their paid or subscription antivirussoftware. Encryption of information that you do not want anyone to haveunauthorized access to is a good way to avoid some cybercrimes; informationsuch as password and credit card information for example. Encryption softwareruns your data through encryption algorithms to make it unintelligible toanyone who tries to hack into your computer.Anothergood precaution is to be weary of who you divulge your personal information to.Try to avoid unknown websites, in particular those that ask for your name,mailing address, bank account number or social security number.
When doingonline shopping make sure website is secure, look for urls that starts with”https”and/or have the Trustee or VeriSign seal. If you do not see theseanywhere on the site, you run the risk of submitting credit card informationand other personal information to a site that maybe a fraud.Anotherway to avoid being a victim of cybercrimes is to avoid being susceptible to commonfrauds, such as inherences letter, letter asking for your help in placing largesums of money in overseas bank accounts, foreign lotteries, and phonysweepstakes. Those mentioned activities are all methods used by cyber criminalsto get your personal information and money. If it sounds too good to be true,it probably is.Educatechildren about the proper use of the computer and internet and make sure tomonitor their online activities at home and school alike. They should only haveaccess to a computer located in a central area of your home and you shouldregularly check all browser and email activity.
A wise thing to is to useparental control software that limits the type of sites the user can gainaccess to. In schools, there should be restricted websites and other userrestrictions that will help protect the user and entity from cybercrime.Likewise, companies should educate and have written policies governing the workplacepc and its network use to diminish the risk of cybercrime against the company. One definite way to ensure that youdon’t fall victim of cybercrimes is to disconnect your computer entirely fromthe internet. If there is no network, then you don’t have to worry about any cyber-attacks.However, this option is not the most viable one in our interconnected society.The truth is, it is up to you to take the necessary precautions to avoidpotential cybercrimes. Conclusion Cybercrimeswillalways be an ongoing challenge despite the advancements being made by numerouscountries.
Most countries have their own laws to combat cybercrimes, but somedoesn’t have any new laws but solely relies on standard terrestrial law toprosecute these crimes. Along with outdated laws to combat cybercrime, thereare still feeble penalties set in place to punish criminals, thus doing nomajor prevention of cybercrimes’ which affect the economy and people’s sociallives on a large scale by those criminals. Consequently, there is a desperateneed for countries on a global scale to come together and decide on whatconstitute a cybercrime, and develop ways in which to persecute criminalsacross different countries. Itis recommend that until sufficient legal actions can be put in place whereindividual countries and global ways of persecution criminals, self-protectionremains the first line of defense. The everyday individuals and businesses needto make sure they are educated on what to do in terms of prevent in becoming thenext victim of cybercrimes.
This basic awareness can help prevent potentialcybercrimes against them.It is almost impossible to reducecybercrimefrom the cyber-space. Looking back on the many different acts passed, historycan be witness that no legislation has thrived in total eliminationof cybercrimefrom the world. The only possible step is to make people aware of their rightsand duties and further making more punishable laws which is more stringent tocheck them. Undoubtedly, the different Actswere and still are historical stepsin the virtual world as we know it.
This further suggests that there is a needto conveymodifications in the Information Technology Act so it can be moreeffective to fightcybercrimes. Caution should be employedfor thepro-legislation educational institutions that the requirements of the cyber lawsare not prepared so rigorous that it may delay the growth of the commerce and demonstrateto be counter-productive to many.Remember, cybercriminals are evolving as wellin terms of computer knowledge per technological advancement made.
Nevertheless, business should employpractices where their employees follow proper safety practices to ensure thatintegrity and confidentially of stored information is kept at all times tocombat cybercrimes. Safety practices like ensuring that staying off game siteson company time where viruses can be downloaded, forwarding chain emails,leaving workstation unattended or password sharing over virtual mediums shouldbe prohibited. With all these safety practices implemented,it can be said that thesafety of many clients stored information is optimal.