AbstractGlobalizationpaved the way for a new phenomenon called internet. As internet has grown morepopular day by day, people have started using internet for a variety ofreasons. In marketing point of view, people have adopted different buyingdecisions. Internet is now used widely by consumers who search internet to buythings rather than going to stores. People may be influenced by the contentthey see in internet which can change their intention to buy. In this article,the effect of video bloggers (Vloggers) on consumers’ intention to buy onlineis studied.
Keywords: Vloggers, intention,loyalty, internet, marketing 1. IntroductionWithglobalization, everything we know is changing around us. Companies are becomingincreasingly interdependent.
A person now living in Italy orders something fromUnited States. It includes the definition of marketing. According to AmericanMarketing Association marketing is defined as:”the activity, set of institutions, andprocesses for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offeringsthat have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large (Ama.org,2013).”As with thegeneration of digital natives, people’s perspective of marketing has beenever-changing. Companies try to catch up with the digital world as people areusing internet more than ever before. %70 of the youth have now internet access(ICT Facts and Figures, 2017). This leads companies to track the trends thatpeople follow and create online.
Variousviral campaigns and tracking systems are created to build sustainablerelationships with consumers. In the past,people used to be spoon-fed by marketers with advertisements. However, nowpeople are marketers themselves (Phil,2013). Social media such as YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and Instagram are usedby billions of people daily.
People have their own space to express themselvesin front of an audience: World. Giventhat, various people have become so popular that they are accepted as opinionleaders. This can be a way for marketers to attract new customers.
In thisrespect, vloggers who generally tape themselves performing something or talkingabout something can be influential. Vloggers like Pewdiepie, who has nearly 60million subscribers in 2018, have strong relationships with their subscribers.In this study, the possible effects of Vloggers on consumers’ intention to buyare studied. 2.
Literature ReviewStudies haveshown that online bloggers are effective in marketing products (Khan , 2016; Romo et al., 2017; Afonso & Alvarez, 2017). Companies useonline opinion leaders to present their products as they have a lot offollowers. Such practices include content marketing in which productadvertisements are ”hidden” in the content they present. As followers areinterested in influencers, they may engage more in products that they present. Vloggersare not an exception to this as they continuously interact with their followersvia their reaction videos and comment sections in different social mediaplatforms. There are several criteria to evaluate vloggers’ effect onconsumers’ buying intention.
2.1. Video Content ValueAdvertisementsshould act like a bridge between customers and companies. Ducoffe (1996) claims that an advertisementshould be relevant to customers.
It should be informative about the product itrepresents to inform customers about the product. The content should beentertaining and not irritating at the same time. As vloggers also advertiseproducts, they should pay attention to their content when they feature aproduct.
Possible outcome of high video content value is studied in the study. 2.2. Personal ValueBuildingrelationships is important for marketers as it leads to brand loyalty. The samecan apply to vloggers and their followers when vloggers are seen as a mediumfor marketing campaigns like endorsements. In order to build relationships withcustomers, Cheung and Tsang (2005) propose a model which contains socialcompetency skills such as problem-solving skills, knowledge and attitudes. Hochwarter et al.
(2006) also claim high support leads highperformance. In this case, vloggers’ support for audience may get higherengagement from customers. On the other hand, knowledge and informationrelevant to customers from bloggers are more salient (Doyle et al, 2012). This kindof daily information creates personal value for customers. 2.3. Satisfaction Customer satisfaction is one of the factors that influencecustomer loyalty to a brand.
Satisfaction levels of customers can be raised byimproving channel richness, information transparency and accessibility (Hsu etal., 2013). In this respect vloggers’ comment sections and accessibility can beadapted to the model proposed. Vloggers who upload content that has value forcustomers and meet the needs of their followers satisfy their audience.Satisfaction’s role in building loyalty is studied in the survey.2.4. LoyaltyCustomer loyalty is defined by customer’s dedication to abrand or a product.
Loyal customers will prefer brands that they know and have relationshipswith. Customer loyalty is important to secure returning customers. As a resultof that, companies aim to get customers who are loyal to them.
Vloggers asadvertisers have their own loyal customers. People who follow vlogs on aregular basis and support them are loyal to vloggers. Loyalty to vloggers mayinfluence intention to buy as vloggers recommend and try new products for theirfollowers. Hsu et al.
(2013) proclaim that satisfaction creates loyalty. Thismay be the case for vloggers and their followers.2.5. Intention to ShopIn the light of scholars that have been mentioned in thestudy different criteria may influence value and satisfaction levels ofcustomers.
We propose that these criteria influence loyalty of vloggers’followers who are potential customers. Loyalty to vloggers as endorsers andopinion leaders can be used in marketing concept. Vloggers who have strongrelationships and engagement can differentiate customers’ schemata about aparticular brand or a product. Mikalef et al. (2013) say that social mediabrowsing brings about purchase intention. Similarly, Hsu and Tsou (2011) findthat blogs increase customer intention to buy as they facilitate customerexperiences. We assume that loyalty as an eventual result of video contentvalue, personal value and satisfaction has an impact on customers’ intention toshop online.