British officer Ronald Ross in 1897 studied on mosquitoes and birds, and proposed
that malaria can be transmitted from infected bird to a normal bird through
Anopheles mosquito. This study explain the mystery of the life cycle of the
parasite that a part of the life of Plasmodium is spent in mosquitoes, later on
it was titeled as Sporogonic Cycle. In 1902 Ronald Ross was awarded by Nobel
Prize for his diagnosis (Francis et al., 2010). leading vectors for the transfer
of Plasmodium are Anophele funestus, A.
arabiensis, A. merus, A. bwambae, A. nili, and A. gambiae. In Eastern and South
Africa about six other breed in A. gambiae also act as vectors of
malarial infection (Coetzee et al., 2000; Reid et
al., 1968). Genus Anopheles of mosquitoes is a chief vector of plasmodium transference
on coastal areas and on islands of Southeast Asia. Molecular research exhibits
a large number of diversification in, A. arabiensis, An. Gambiae and
A. funestus (MCP, 1999). After study organized on the Plasmodium
vectors of Pakistan which declared that there are about 24 breed of anopheles
mosquitoes including A. subpictus, A. dthali, A. culicifacies, A.
pulcherrimus, An. pallidus, A. annularis, A. fluviatilis, A. turkhudi,
A. stephensi, A. superpictus, A. willmori, A. lindesayi, A. multicolor, A. moghulensis,
A. sergenti, A. maculates, A. claviger, A. gigas, A. theobald, A.
barianensis, A. barbirostris, A. nigerrimus, A. splendidus, A. peditaeniatus, A.
stephensi and A. culicifacies are
the species that yield resistance to many of the insecticides including,
carbamates, Dieldrin, DDT and
organophosphates (fenitrothion ,malathion) (Yasinzai et al., 2004). In Pakistan primary
vector species are A. stephensi and
A. culicifacie (Yasinzai
et al., 2003; Dash et al., 2007). A large number of A. culicifacies A.
stephensi and were recorded as vectors of plasmodium in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
province of Pakistan (Dash et al., 2006).
But the number of A. stephensi is comparatively more then Anopheles
culicifacies. In Punjab province of Pakistan Anopheles culicifacies is more prevalent. Before September it
is more progressive while it disappears after the month of September (Dash
et al., 2006; Yasinzai et al., 2003). An. stephensi is a species of sub-tropical
which is distributed in the entire South Asia and middle east. In Arid and
Semi-arid region of Gujarat and Rajasthan, A. subpictus Grassi were found to be more frequent
breed (Anwar et al.,
1994). In Pakistan,Afghanistan and India
An. stephensi is an exclusive vector of malaria. It has an awesome characteristic
of efficient breeding in below ground water containers mostly in urban areas