ABritish officer Ronald Ross in 1897 studied on mosquitoes and birds, and proposedthat malaria can be transmitted from infected bird to a normal bird throughAnopheles mosquito. This study explain the mystery of the life cycle of theparasite that a part of the life of Plasmodium is spent in mosquitoes, later onit was titeled as Sporogonic Cycle. In 1902 Ronald Ross was awarded by NobelPrize for his diagnosis (Francis et al., 2010).
leading vectors for the transferof Plasmodium are Anophele funestus, A.arabiensis, A. merus, A.
bwambae, A. nili, and A. gambiae. In Eastern and SouthAfrica about six other breed in A.
gambiae also act as vectors ofmalarial infection (Coetzee et al., 2000; Reid etal., 1968). Genus Anopheles of mosquitoes is a chief vector of plasmodium transferenceon coastal areas and on islands of Southeast Asia. Molecular research exhibitsa large number of diversification in, A.
arabiensis, An. Gambiae andA. funestus (MCP, 1999). After study organized on the Plasmodiumvectors of Pakistan which declared that there are about 24 breed of anophelesmosquitoes including A. subpictus, A. dthali, A. culicifacies, A.
pulcherrimus, An. pallidus, A. annularis, A. fluviatilis, A. turkhudi,A. stephensi, A. superpictus, A. willmori, A.
lindesayi, A. multicolor, A. moghulensis,A. sergenti, A. maculates, A. claviger, A.
gigas, A. theobald, A.barianensis, A. barbirostris, A.
nigerrimus, A. splendidus, A. peditaeniatus, A.stephensi and A.
culicifacies arethe species that yield resistance to many of the insecticides including,carbamates, Dieldrin, DDT andorganophosphates (fenitrothion ,malathion) (Yasinzai et al., 2004). In Pakistan primaryvector species are A. stephensi andA. culicifacie (Yasinzaiet al., 2003; Dash et al., 2007).
A large number of A. culicifacies A.stephensi and were recorded as vectors of plasmodium in Khyber Pakhtunkhwaprovince of Pakistan (Dash et al.
, 2006).But the number of A. stephensi is comparatively more then Anophelesculicifacies. In Punjab province of Pakistan Anopheles culicifacies is more prevalent. Before September itis more progressive while it disappears after the month of September (Dashet al., 2006; Yasinzai et al.
, 2003). An. stephensi is a species of sub-tropicalwhich is distributed in the entire South Asia and middle east.
In Arid andSemi-arid region of Gujarat and Rajasthan, A. subpictus Grassi were found to be more frequentbreed (Anwar et al.,1994). In Pakistan,Afghanistan and IndiaAn.
stephensi is an exclusive vector of malaria. It has an awesome characteristicof efficient breeding in below ground water containers mostly in urban areas(WHO, 2009).