A.     Digital Imaging

The sixth technology is Digital imaging. It was a radical innovation in technology.
Digital image processing (also called digital picture processing) began development
in the 1960s at the Universities and research facilities. The digital image
processing is useful in many fields, for example: satellite imagery, wire-photo
standards conversion, medical imaging, videophone, character recognition, and
photograph enhancement (Rosenfeld, 1969). It has dedicated hardware with
processors used in most computers, and images can be used in real life standards
such as television standards conversion in 1970s. In the 2000s, the digital
image processing was the most common and general technology in real life. The
first digital camera was manufactured by Eastman Kodak in December 1975 (PetaPixel,
2017). The world’s first production digital camera was brought in the
market by Kodak and Steve Sasson. In the year 1996, Kodak DC25 Camera was
introduced which featured a 493×373 pixel CCD sensor, 47-mm equivalent lens,
and a LCD display. It was also the first to support CompactFlash cards and a
PCMCIA slot. It was nearly $700 cheaper than its competitor. It was focused on
photo journalists market, because it had a cheaper price and a LCD display, that
made previewing the picture after clicking, an easy task.

Nikon F3 that was made in November 1978, and less weight than Nikon F2.
F3 was supplied to NASA, that used it for the first space shuttle in 1981. It
was used to track the record of satellite for Apollo program and Skylab program
in 1970s. (Imaging Products, n.d.) 

Canon RC-701 was the very first still video camera marketed in July
1986. It had a high-speed shutter-priority and multi-program automatic
exposure feature. It was designed for the professional photographer market (Global.
Canon, 2017). 

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B.      CCD and CMOS

In 1960s, Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith created the CCD (Sorrel C., 2017). They are called the father of Digital Photography.
According to Sorrel (2017), the CCD is the method that use a light-sensitive
silicon chip to digitize an image. In 1967, Frank Wanlass patented CMOS:
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. It is another type of image sensor
technology. Both technologies are incremental innovations of Digital imaging.
They made the cameras smaller and lighter with longer lasting batteries. The
representative product of CCD sensor technology is Canon EOS 1D that was
launched in 2001. It is a professional camera that has a target market in news
and sports. Because 1D’s image processing speed is faster, the image is
clearer. The representative product of CMOS is Nikon Coolpix
P7100. The target market of P7100 is amateurs because of the lower price and
high image quality.


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