A few numbersof   major ethicalprinciples  should be considered  when conducting a research study. Theseethical principles stress on the need of beneficence and do no harm or non-malfeasance.In research guidelines, these ethical principles mean that as a researcher, youneed to: (1)minimize risk of harm to the participants   (2) obtain informed consent frompotential research participants  (3) protecttheir anonymity and confidentiality (4)avoid using deceptive practices  (5) giveparticipants the right to withdraw from the research 1) MINIMISINGTHE RISK OF HARMResearch study should be not harm theparticipants.

The possibility that participants could be harmed or prone to bein a condition of discomfort, there must be strong justifications for this.Such scenarios will also require an additional planning to illustrate howparticipant harm will be reduced, informed consent, and detaileddebriefing.2) OBTAINING INFORMEDCONSENTInformed consent means that participantsshould understand that they are taking part in research and what theresearch requires from them.

Such information may include the purpose of theresearch, the method being used, the possible outcomes of the research, as wellas associated demands, discomforts, inconveniences and risks that theparticipants may face. Another component of informed consent , the  participants should be volunteers, takingpart without have been forced and deceived. 3) PROTECTING ANONYMITY AND CONFIDENTIALITYProtecting the anonymity and confidentiality ofresearch participants is practical component of research ethics. Participants  commonly will being  to volunteer information, especiallyinformation of a private or sensitive nature, if the researcher agrees to holdsuch information in confidence.

It is possible that research participants maybe hurt in some way if the data collection methods used are somehow insensitive,there is perhaps a greater danger that harm can be happened once data has beencollected. This occurs when data is not treated appropriately, whether in termsof the storage of data, analysis or during the submission process. Anotheralternative is to remove identifiers as such vernacular terms, names, geographicalcues or provide proxies when writing the research.Therefore, we need to consider the way on how to overcoming the problems, such as aggregatingdata in tables and setting rules to ensure a minimum number of units arereviewed before data/information can be presented.4) AVOIDING DECEPTIVE PRACTICESIn thefirst sight, deceptive practices fly in the face of informedconsent.

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After all, how can participants notice that they are taking partin research and  what the research requires of them if they arebeing deceived. This is part of what makes the use of deceptive practicescontroversial. For this reason, in most circumstances, research studyshould be avoid from any kinds of deceptive practices.

5) PROVIDING THE RIGHT TO WITHDRAWWiththe exception of those instances of covert observation where is notfeasible to let everyone that is being observed know what you are doing,research participants should always have the right to withdraw fromthe research process. Furthermore, participants should have the right towithdraw at any stage in the research process. When a participant chooses towithdraw from the research process, they should not be pressured or forced inany way to try and stop them from withdrawing.