English 112

2086 review questions:Answer each question and use your textbook for assistance.Chapter 16, The Endocrine SystemDefine hormone.Describe the two general mechanisms of hormone action and indicate how they relate to neural transmission.Describe how hormone release is regulated and its three major types of stimuli.List and describe the functions of the major endocrine organs.Explain the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary.Define and describe prolactin and oxytocin.Describe the location, function and structure of the following terms: thyroid gland and parathyroid hormone.

Include the effects of both hormones.Name two endocrine glands that are important in stress response.List the hormones secreted by the gonads in both male and female.Describe the location and function of the pineal gland and thymus.

Chapter 17, BloodList the components of blood.Explain the physical characteristics of blood and its major functions.Describe blood plasma and formed elements.Discuss the structural characteristics, function and production of erythrocytes (red blood cells).

Describe the make up and breakdown of hemoglobin.List the general and functional characteristics of leukocytes (white blood cells).Identify and describe the components of granulocytes and agranulocytes.Define the following terms: myeloblasts, platlets, homeostasis, and fibrinolysis.List the three major phases in homeostasis.List the three major steps of coagulation.

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Describe the clotting process and how clot overgrowth is usually prevented.Chapter 18, The Cardiovascular System: The HeartDescribe the size and location of the heart in the thorax.Name the coverings of the heart.Describe the structure and function of the three layers of the heart.Describe the structure and function of the four chambers of the heart.

Include the major vessels associated with each.Trace the pathway of blood through the heart and lungs.Review coronary circulation.

Define cardiac muscle.Compare intrinsic and extrinsic control mechanisms of the heart.Describe the two heart sounds and how heart murmurs differ.Define cardiac output and how it is regulated.Identify risk factors for cardiac disease.Chapter 19, The Cardiovascular System: Blood VesselsList the three major types of blood vessels.

Compare and contrast the structure and function of arteries, veins, and capillaries.Define the following terms: vasoconstriction and vasodilation.Compare the three types of capillaries in structure, function, and location.Discuss the structure and function of a capillary bed.Define the following terms: blood flow, blood pressure, and resistance. Include the relationship between these factors.List three important sources of resistance.Identify the factors that affect blood pressure and vascular resistance.

Define the following terms: hypertension and circulatory shock.Name the short-term and long-term mechanisms of blood pressure.Review the neural control mechanisms.Trace the changes in velocity as blood travels from arteries to capillaries to veins.Discuss how fetal circulation differs from circulation after birth.Chapter 20, The Lymphatic SystemList the major components and functions of the lymphatic system.Describe the function of lymphatic vessels, capillaries, collecting vessels, and trunks.Name the location and function of diffuse lymphatic tissue and lymphoid follicles (nodules).

List the major lymph organs and functions of each.Define lymph nodes.Describe the functions and structure of lymph nodes, spleen and thymus.List the three types of tonsils.

Chapter 21, The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body DefensesDescribe functions of the immune system.Discuss the difference between adaptive (specific) and innate (non-specific) defenses.Describe the function of skin as a surface barrier.Explain the roles of phagocytosis and natural killer cells in the innate body defense.Describe the effects of inflammatory response and the four signs of acute inflammation.

Name and describe the process by which phagocytes are mobilized to infiltrate injured cells.List the two most important antimicrobial proteins.Define humoral and cellular immunity.Define antigens and describe its two important functional properties.

Define and differentiate primary and secondary immune response.Define antibodies.List and describe the five classes of antibodies.Describe the four defensive mechanisms used by antibodies.

Review the formation and types of T cells.Distinguish between active and passive immunity.Explain how allergic reactions, tissue rejection reactions, and autoimmunity are related.Compare the functions of cell-mediated immunity and antibody-mediated immunity.Chapter 22, The Respiratory SystemList the major functions of the respiratory system.Describe the structure and functions of each organ of the respiratory system.Describe the respiratory membrane and relate structure to function.

Describe the respiratory center and its role in inhalation and exhalation.List factors that influence pulmonary ventilation.Compare the four lung volumes of interest with respiratory capacities.Review the concept of partial pressure.

Explain Dalton??™s and Henry??™s Laws in relation to external and internal respiration.Define hyperventilation.Explain how oxygen and carbon dioxide are carried by the blood and exchanged between the lungs and the tissues.

Name the major nerves that connect the brain stem to the respiratory muscles.List factors that impact respiration. Include pulmonary irritants, Hering-Breuer reflex, hypothalamic controls, and cortical controls.Chapter 23, The Digestive SystemName and describe the major organs of digestion.List and define the six essential activities which occur in the digestive process.List the four basic layers of the alimentary canal.Name and provide the function and structure of the oral cavity.

Explain the function and structure of the tongue.Describe the components and functions of saliva. Explain how salvation is regulated.Explain how food travels through the alimentary canal. Discuss the mechanical andenzymatic activity occurring along the GI tract.

Name the functions of the stomach.Discuss the functions of the small intestine.Describe the gross and microscopic anatomy of the following terms: small intestine, liver, pancreas and large intestine.List and describe the factors that regulate food intake.

Chapter 24, Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation.Define Nutrition. Describe it role in homeostasis.List the six classes of nutrients. Distinguish between nutrients and essential nutrients.

List the major sources of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins and how they are used by the cells.List the fat-soluble and the water-soluble vitamins and name the functions of each class.List the minerals essential of health.Define metabolism. Describe its role in homeostasis.Define the following terms: oxidation, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, ketone bodies, basal metabolic rate and total metabolic rate.

Explain the importance of diet on health. Chapter 25, The Urinary SystemList the organs of the urinary system.Describe the location, structure, and functions of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.List the components of nephron responsible for filtration, reabsorption and secretion.Describe the structure and function of the collecting duct.Describe the physical characteristics and chemical composition of urine.

Discuss the three process involved in the formation of dilute and concentrated urine.Chapter 26, Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base BalanceDescribe the role ADH plays in the excretion of water.Describe the site of ADH formation and the regulation of its secretion.Discuss why kidneys are considered to be our most important homeostatic organ.Describe the hormones affecting the kidneys, such as erythropoietin, aldosterone and ADH.List the normal and abnormal components of urine, while discussing the importance of water and electrolyte balance.

Describe the various fluid compartments of the body and comparing their electrolytecomposition.Explain the importance of physiological buffering by the lungs and kidneys.Chapter 27, The Reproductive SystemName the structure and functions of the male and female reproductive systems.Describe the structure and function of the testes, scotum, and penis.

Explain the location, structure, and function of the accessory reproductive organs of the male.Define semen and discuss its source and function.Explain the phases of the male sexual response.Describe the hormonal regulation of testicular function.Describe the location, structure, and function of ovaries, uterus, and vagina.Discuss the difference between internal and external female genitalia.

Review the components and function of mammary glands.Compare and contrast spermatogenesis and oogenesis.Discuss the ovarian and menstrual cycle phase and explain how they are related.Describe the physiological effects of estrogens and progesterone.Explain the phase of the female sexual response.

Describe the effects of aging on the reproductive systems of males and females.Chapter 28, Pregnancy and Human DevelopmentDefine fertilization.Describe implantation and placenta formation.Describe gastrulation.

List the three primary germ layers.Discuss the functional changes in maternal organs and in the cardiovascular, respiratory, and urinary systems during pregnancy.Describe how labor is initiated and include the three stages of labor.

Explain the changes that occur in the fetal circulation after birth.Discuss how the breasts are prepared for lactation.Chapter 29, HereditaryDefine allele.Discuss the difference between genotype and phenotype.Describe the important mechanisms that lead to genetic variations in gametes.

Describe the mechanism of sex-linked inheritance.Explain how RNA-only genes and epigenetic marks affect gene expression.Identify several techniques used to determine genetic diseases.List some approaches to gene therapy.


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