Left atrial pressure increase and

Mitral Stenosis (stiff) Aortic Stenosis (entropy) –          Cause by rheumatic fever (untreated strep throat), endocarditis, hardening of valve etc –          Left atrial pressure increase and cause dilation, this lead to pulmonary hypertension and cause hypertrophy of ventricle –          Left side heart failure eventually cause right side heart failure.

As the disease progress, patient will develop right side heart failure symptoms as well. –          Asymptomatic or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, dry cough, orthopnea, hemoptysis, and heart palpitation. In the later stage (right side heart failure)-hepatomegaly, neck vein distention, pitting dependent edema. –          Rumbling apical diastolic murmur present –          Monitor for irregular heart rhythm –          Most common cardiac valve dysfunction (wear tear) –          Congenital bicuspid is the most common cause, also atherosclerosis and degeneration of valve –          Increase afterload, hypertrophy & decrease CO, and eventually cause congestion in left atrium which can lead to pulmonary congestion –          Symptoms includes dyspnea, angina, syncope, fatigue, debilitation, peripheral cyanosis –          Systolic murmur present   Treatment (both) –          Diuretics, beta blockers, digoxin, O2 is used to treat heart failure –          Vasodilator (Ca+ channel blocker) use to decrease regurgitant flow –          Anticoagulation therapy –          Cardioversion to reset the cardiac rhythm (assess s&s for stroke, TEE prior), management of atrial fib –          rest –          Balloon valvuloplasty, direct open commissurotomy (remove Ca & scar tissue), heart valve replacement procedure using xenograft & pulmonary autographs   –          Mitral valve annuloplasty   –          Nitrate is used for decreased in preload –          Patient who are not surgical candidate, transcatheter aortic valve replacement can be done   Mitral Regurgitation (systole) Aortic Regurgitation (diastole) –          Increase blood volume & pressure and cause L. atrium &ventricle hypertrophy –          Primary cause is degeneration by aging and RH disease –          Symptom: asymptomatic until left ventricle fails, fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, orthopnea, anxiety, chest pain, palpitation –          Blood flow back in to the left ventricle during diastole causing increase in volume & pressure and hypertrophy –          Caused from non-rheumatic condition like infective endocarditis, HTN, Marfan syndrome, congenital anatomic aortic valvular abnormalities –          Asymptomatic until left ventricle fails, diaphoresis, bounding pulse, wide pulse pressure Treatment: similar as stenosis   Mitral Valve Prolapse –          Valve leaf enlarge and prolapse into left atrium during systole –          Marfan syndrome and other congenital defects –          Asymptomatic, chest pain, palpitation, exercise intolerance, dizziness, syncope –          Midsystolic click and murmur present at apex    


I'm Dora!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Click here