Attitude of the Society


It is certified that , Roll No. , BSc has carried out the necessary practical work as per course of studies by Punjab university for the year 2010 ??“ 2012 of the subject Applied Psychology as shown in the research report.

Teacher Incharge
Department of Applied Psychology
Date of Submission:

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Chapter 4: RESULTS
Chapter 7: APPENDIX


We are extremely thankful to Allah Almighty who has enabled us to complete this project on time. He provided us the sources to capture the knowledge and avail the opportunities in the world.
/ wish to thank my respected teacher by whose guidance / was

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able to accomplish this task. She guided me at each and every step. Her hard work and dedication was a source of inspiration to me.
In the end, I send our special gratitude to those whose names have not been mentioned but they have supported us at every step.

Attitude, Legislation, and Ligitation
Special Education Supplement

Congress first enacted the Education for All Handicapped Children Act in 1975. This law became the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act in 1990 (IDEA 1990) and was later reauthorized in 1997 (IDEA 1997) and then again in 2004 as the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA), which is referred to as IDEA 2004.

IDEA 2004 consists of four parts or subdivisions. Part A declares the barriers, solutions, and national policy for educating students with disabilities. Part B authorizes funds to educate students ages 3-21. Under Part B, students receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE). Part C authorizes funds to educate infants and toddlers, age birth to 2. Part D authorizes national research, training, demonstration, and technical assistance activities. This examination will only address Parts A, B, and C.

This law (IDEA 2004) relates to other education and disability laws and this supplemental text discusses
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this interrelationship between them, such as No Child Left Behind (NCLB 2001), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act (1973), and the Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA 1990), the latter two being civil rights laws.

NCLB was passed in 2001 and signed by the president in 2002 with the purpose of improving the education of all students, including those with disabilities in all public school in the country. NCLB is currently being reviewed again and will probably experience revisions in the coming years. It should be mentioned that NCLB was called the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 with NCLB as the amendment.

NCLB (2001) rests upon six major principles, and IDEA 2004, as amended, aligns itself with these revisions. Terms to become familiar with in the readings include: accountability, highly qualified teachers, scientifically based intervention, local flexibility, safe schools, and parent participation and choice.
Higher education in the United States undergoes change in response to modifications in the perceived needs of the society, legislative policies and social attitudes. As a result, the student pool has changed considerably in higher educational institutions, which includes every type of disability. Literature shows that students with disabilities often faced additional challenges in their educational environment. As the number of students with disabilities seeking to complete their college education increases across the country, these additional issues present problems to this emerging population. These students face both physical and attitudinal barriers within the university environment. This article presents a review of the literature about the status of students with disabilities in higher education in the United States.


Individuals with disabilities constitute the largest minority in the United States (McGuire, 1992). The National Council for Education Statistics (1996) reported that in the fall of 1994, over 14.5 million students were enrolled in the nations higher educational institutions and over 1.4 million of these students (10.3 percent) reported having at least one disability. Forty percent of the 1,400,000 students have orthopedic and neurological related disabilities, and the rest includes learning disabilities, visual impairments, and other physical and psychiatric disabilities (Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1995). The enrollment of students with disabilities is increasing in higher education, due in part to strict federal laws such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regarding right to accessibility, political support, work of disability groups, as well as media coverage (Hirschhorn, 1992).

Students with disabilities have additional needs attributable to those disabilities such as, living on their own and dealing with the disability in an educational environment. The daily life tasks of those of individuals with a disability are more complicated than students without disabilities (Graham, Weingarden, & Murphy, 1991). For example mobility impaired students face architectural obstacles within the schools existing environment. Many of these students continue to encounter problems during their late undergraduate and graduate years (American Council on Education, 1995). Appleby (1994) found that nearly one-half of college students with disabilities seek personal counseling services and suggested that the types of issues related to their transition and adjustment can be quite different from the problems presented by the nondisabled population due to physical and attitudinal barriers.

Review of Literature

The review of related literature is presented in two parts. The first part pertains to changes in higher education in America and legislation related to students with disabilities and the second part pertains to specific studies on university and college environments and students with disabilities.

Higher Education, Students with Disabilities and Legislation

Until the early 1900s, higher education efforts in the United States centered primarily on providing educated clergy and social leaders (Malakpa, 1997). Time and circumstances have proven strong modifiers of higher educational organizations, which now have become more focused on extended educational opportunities and career development issues. This expanded “vision” also has brought an increasingly diverse student body, more extensive curricula, and a greater range of education-related activities and services (Milani, 1996).

Students with disabilities represent one of the groups, which are currently, more active in their pursuit of advanced learning opportunities. Youths with disabilities who had graduated from secondary institutions were three times as likely to enroll in higher education programs compared to their nondisabled peers (Brown, 1992; Gartin, Rumrill, & Serebreni, 1996). For example, a study by Bailey (1994) surveyed 45 disabled and 33 nondisabled college students to assess whether the way disabled students value college education differs from that of nondisabled college students. The results showed that the disabled students were more keen to improve their value to society through successful involvement in college education than their nondisabled counterparts.

Prior to the 1970s, many students with disabilities were denied admission to colleges and universities in the United States because of their disabilities. For example, a 1962 survey of 92 Midwestern colleges and universities revealed that 65 would not accept wheelchair using students (Angel, 1969). Fonosch (1980) cited a 1974 survey of 1000 four-year institutions which found that 18% rejected blind applicants, 27% rejected applicants in wheelchairs, and 22% rejected deaf applicants.

Congressional legislation introduced in the early 1970s had as its focus the improvement of conditions for Americans with disabilities. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended in 1974, was the first significant piece of federal legislation affecting students with disabilities in higher educational institutions securing fund from the federal government. The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare regulations that implemented Section 504 are administered by the United States Department of Education Office for Civil Rights, and have several implications for all institutions of higher learning. Section 504 outlines the responsibilities of higher education in providing equal educational opportunity for “otherwise qualified handicapped individuals” and imposes an “affirmative action obligation” on higher educational institutions (Kaplan, 1985, p. 242).

Another significant piece of federal legislation related to students with disabilities is the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (P.L. 94-142), signed into law by President Ford in 1975. The resulting implementation of state mandates, in accordance with the “least restrictive environment” concept, provided for the participation of students with disabilities in the regular classroom (Horne, 1985; Parker & West, 1996). This, in turn, enabled a new pool of potential college students.

The most recent federal legislation is the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. Two of the purposes of the ADA (P.L. 101-336) are to provide a “… national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against individuals with disabilities” and to provide strong “… enforceable standards addressing discrimination against this population” (U.S. Code of Congressional & Administrative News, 1990, p. 39). Essentially, the ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in the areas of employment, public accommodation, public services, transportation, and telecommunications. This newest legislation also affects educational settings because colleges and universities are considered as public sites. These three major acts contributed greatly to the increasing enrollment of students with disabilities on college campuses (Thompson, Bethea, & Turner, 1997).

Research Studies on Student-life

There are numerous studies conducted in the area of higher education and disabilities. This review is focused on the university life experience of students with disabilities; studies about academic and social integration; and studies related to awareness and attitudes toward students with disabilities.

A qualitative case study by Synatschk (1994) examined the experiences of 5 college students with learning disabilities who successfully completed their studies at a major research university. The purpose of the study was to determine what factors and processes were perceived as influential in successful adjustment. Individual and group interviews were conducted with these participants. Results indicated that the interaction of the perceptions of life-event stressors, individual abilities, and disabilities influenced the types of actions taken by successful college students with learning disabilities. The students expressed a conflict between their desire to be independent and their desire to use services and accommodations available to them.

Over the past several decades the thinking of students with disabilities has changed a great deal. In fact the attitude toward people with disabilities haw changed. They have went from being banned from marring, being sterilized, being kept in intuitions away from their families and society to being fully included in main stream society. Students with disabilities have in the past been treated as if they are not capable of doing any kind of learning just because they do not fall within ???normal??? description of a student. ???People with disabilities have historically been viewed as a burden to families and society??? (Drew, Clifford J., Egan, M. Winston & Hardman, Michael L. (2011). They have been separated from the main stream society within schools. They have been banned from regular classrooms and regular schools. They have not been allowed to socialize with their peers because of their disabilities, but this has all came full circle bringing students with disabilities together with other students with acceptance. This change is now providing students with disabilities education. Not just education is faculties with other students that are disabled but education within public schools where they can be included with their peers. Gone are the days when discriminating against an individual with disabilities went unnoticed.
Legislation and litigation has paved the way for students with disabilities to be included in the classroom. It has been a slow ever changing process. It started with the civil rights movement of the 1950??™s and continued through the 1960??™s with JFK. In 1975 several pieces of legislation where brought together and made into one law which was the Education for All Handicapped Children Act this act made free and appropriate education…


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