There was a point in time where the focus of atomic energy was primarily set in weapons development; a massive international stalemate regarding atomic science following the destruction seen in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There was shock and terror worldwide once it was shown what the newest and best weapons of war could do to cities and people. A very paranoid world began doing massive amounts of nuclear research, making sure the defense warehouses were stocked as full as they could be with this new technology, in case it was ever needed for retaliation of some sort. A move could not easily be made due to such tension between competition in atomic stockpiles around the world, and during his presidency, Dwight Eisenhower tried hard to take firm grasp of the situation and handle it as peacefully and diplomatically as possible. In December of 1953, Eisenhower delivered the famous ???Atoms for Peace??? speech, proposing through use of rhetoric, primarily pathos and logos, that he imagines a world where atomic science can be used for peace rather than for destruction, and that the United States does not want to start a war or cause terror.
Eisenhower realizes that the nuclear weapons issue is one that will at some point affect the entire world, so he sets the speech off by first establishing his credibility as the President of the United States, claiming that he has only just met with the Prime Ministers and Foreign Ministers of Great Britain and France, and then appeals to the United Nations a bit emotionally, saying ???Our subject was some of the problems that beset our world,??? using the words ???our world??? in an attempt to bring nations together over an important issue internationally. Eisenhowers purpose for this choice of words was to help the United Nations realize that he and the United States are taking an approach to the problem with the rest of the world, not apart from them. He wants a consensus on an agenda to deal with atomic technology that everyone can agree with on a global level.
Since the problem being faced deals much with the loss of human lives caused by warfare and the advancing of technologies that have proven able to turn a city into a desolate wasteland, there is quite a bit of emotion involved in Eisenhowers rhetoric. He outlines hope for the world in the statement ???Never before in history has so much hope for so many people been gathered together in a single organization. Your deliberations and decisions during these somber years have already realized part of those hopes.??? Looking deeper into what has been said, one can tell that he is bestowing much honor to the delegates in this conference, pulling at their heart strings and trying to make them realize that the good hope of the world is very much reliant on what happens in United Nations meeting rooms. Eisenhower sees it as very important that their decisions be the right ones, as they will affect everyone on the planet.
For a final appeal to pathos in Eisenhowers introductory paragraphs, he assured the United Nations ???that the Government of the United States will remain steadfast in its support of this body.??? Eisenhower sees the United Nations as a peace-bringing entity and as something that will help the happiness of all men and women, so he gives his undivided support to the cause. An important part of this appeal is that he does not suggest that the United States will be running the show, but gives his humble support and sets himself equal to others. He realizes that his own countrys past decisions have been a great factor in the international scare.
Eisenhower is in fact trying very hard to give off a humble tone, claiming that ???it would not be fitting for me to take this occasion to present to you a unilateral American report on Bermuda.??? Eisenhower is strengthening his credibility by suggesting he would like to take into account other interests besides that of America, like a diplomat would. He continues on to say that even though he is giving the view seen from America, his agenda is no different than the ???universal peace and human dignity??? portrayed by the United Nations. Once again, it is made clear that the United States is an equal but valuable asset when facing the crisis of the unprecedented spread of nuclear technology. As the first nation to use a conventional atomic weapon against an enemy, the President of the United States needed to show that his country was not ready to use its massively powerful weapons once more.
When Eisenhower moves a bit away from emotional appeals and steps more into the ground of facing the atomic problem, he begins by stating he has spent much of his life in service of the military. He then continues on to say that never in his life had he wanted to use the ???language??? of atomic warfare, and being well known for his long military service and many military awards, the credibility of his statement about the ???language??? of atomic warfare is greatly strengthened. Eisenhower may have felt that with his remarkable military genius, the United Nations would see him as a man with good judgment and a man that was able to handle situations concerning foreign affairs with little struggle. He goes on to say that the progress of atomic weapons has outdone what we as people can handle, and that every citizen should have at least some idea of the quantity of explosives the United States is in possession of and what type of damage they can cause. He even hints at many current leaders being incapable of handling the responsibility that comes along with harnessing these types of weapons by claiming later in his speech, referencing to the same point, Eisenhower even claims ???It must be put into the hands of those who will know how to strip its military casing and adapt it to the arts of peace,??? when referring to nuclear fission and other atomic science. The purpose is to set in place critical thinking from the delegates of the United Nations, and to help them further understand what must be done when the ???secret??? of nuclear technology reaches lands where many people would have preferred not. He is pushing logically for a shift from militarization of these sciences to an approach that would benefit men and women worldwide.
To give the full effect of his previous statement, Eisenhower moves on to appealing to logos by stating facts about the United States military arsenal of destruction, including that the military can easily cause a massive explosion containing more energy than that of every bomb dropped in World War II combined. A statement of facts makes his point stronger because now people can have a visual image of the type of damage some of these weapons are capable of producing, and the fact that there are many more than just one stockpile makes the image far more vivid. He says not only that, but also that ???the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marine Corps are all capable of putting this weapon to military use.??? This fact brings Eisenhower to a whole new point, because the United States is not the only military force with this ???dread secret??? weapon, and he is again reassuring the United Nations that the United States does not have a larger authority over any other nations because of the quantity of its bombs.
Further, by using more appeals logic, he makes the claim that ???If at one time the Unites States possessed what might have been called a monopoly of atomic power, that monopoly ceased to exist several years ago.??? In this statement there is both logic and irony. Logic tells Eisenhower that since the secret behind the science of the atomic bomb has been revealed or discovered elsewhere in the world, the United States is now just as susceptible to being targeted by a nuclear attack as any other nation, which in itself is ironic because the United States for several years had been known as a mighty super power of the world, and is now admitting it is as defenseless to this weapon as any other nation.. He knows that the knowledge behind the atomic bomb will be shared worldwide, and it is only a matter of time before it happens. Eisenhower is trying to pose the question into the United Nations of how a world consisting of countless armed forces with massively destructive weapons will be regulated. He himself wonders how nations plan to come up with adequate defense for the most dangerous weapon of all time, as well as hoping he and no one else will live to see the day when another one is used.
Logic also tells Eisenhower that even if a nation such as the United States is stocked to the brim with super high powered explosives, it is still not a preventative measure to ???surprise aggression??? from old rivals or new enemies using the same weapons of choice, which he shares with the United Nations in an appeal to logos. He knows it is a fact that when such a blast is created, devastation is imminent no matter what the circumstances are. The purpose of saying this is to help people realize that no feasible level of defense will be sufficient to protect citizens from one or multiple atomic bomb blasts; yet another reason for the world to avoid getting tied up into nuclear warfare, for the world to ease its obsession with weapons competition, and to start using these advances in technology for the good of mankind rather than for the destruction of it.
He continues speaking about the further construction of mankind through collaboration of nations with a remarkable use of appeals to ethos and pathos. Throughout a segment of the speech, he repeatedly calls the United States ???his country,??? and following up with statements such as ???My country wants to be constructive, not destructive. It wants agreements, not wars, among nations. It wants itself to live in freedom and in the confidence that the people of every other nation enjoy equally the right of choosing their own way of life.??? The point of calling the country ???his??? is not to boast, but to assert his position as the leader of a great nation with the capability to be diplomatic, and at the same time through other appeals to ethos such as , to display himself as an important figure with the right amount of knowledge about warfare and defense to have the understanding of how these weapons should be dealt with. Eisenhower is making the point that he was rightfully chosen as a leader, as he has the ability to take the country under his wing and lead it to peaceful ties with other nuclear arms bearing nations in the world. He powerfully brings out the positive communications that can happen between countries and stresses that friendly types of relationships are important between nations
After once again establishing his credibility as a leader, he goes on to show the persistence in the will of the United States to try and bring about peace. He uses words such as ???hopeful sincerity??? and phrases such as ???We will bend every effort of our minds to the single purpose of emerging from that conference with tangible results towards peace…??? to show that peace is the only option that the United States will stand for, and that efforts will continue to be made in that direction. This appears to be another appeal to pathos, wooing the United Nations into knowing that the United States will not take a predatory stance to this problem, and all solutions will be nonviolent. The statements purpose is to warm the hearts of the delegates and help see eye to eye with other nations that are already on the same page.
Coming to the end of the speech, Eisenhower gives a few final reassuring statements regarding peace, freedom, and unity among nations while calling for a reversal of nuclear research. First, he claims Against the dark background of the atomic bomb, the United States does not wish merely to present strength, but also the desire and the hope for peace. Calling decisions that will be made in the upcoming months ???fateful???, allocates his final appeals to pathos and logos. The reasoning behind this is that the decisions to be made in fact were fateful, activating emotion in Eisenhowers audience. He uses the world ???fateful??? because the word ???fate??? is defined as the end or final result. The emotion brought out includes shared feelings with all of the people of the world affected by the ???fateful??? decisions made by the delegates of the United Nations.
Through his use of logic stemming from all sides of the debate and his powerful and emotionally moving statements, Eisenhower had successfully communicated his point of view to a world frozen in panic and fear of atomic bombs. Eisenhowers goal was to help ease the fear in society of technologies almost unknown to common people and try to redirect said technology to a route that is better for mankind. He painted the picture in many peoples minds of a union of several nations around the world not held back by atomic weapons, but propelled forward in a nuclear blast of technology, capturing the energy of fission and instilling it into society for a good means rather than dropping it on societies as a means of destruction. Eisenhower made it very clear with his logical speaking and heartwarming images of a world where atom bombs are not a large threat that ???Against the dark background of the atomic bomb, the United States does not wish merely to present strength, but also the desire and the hope for peace.???


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