21.1 Newton – Rules of Reasoning            In Isaac Newton’s “Rules of Reasoningin Philosophy,” he explains what we know as the scientific method. He has fourrules of scientific reasoning. The first rule he says that we should not admitto a number of reasons for true and sufficient things that are valid andadequate to clarify their appearances. The second rule says that for the samenatural effects we need to give the same causes. The third rule says thatcharacteristics of bodies that are found to have a place with all bodies withintests are to be regarded wide-ranging. Then the fourth rule says that suggestionscomposed from observation of phenomena should be viewed as precise or verynearly true until denied by other phenomena.

The scientific method that Newtondescribes basically says that there are reasons to why things happen not just becauseyou are superstitious. 21.4 Locke – Second Treatise ofGovernment            Locke’s second chapter in the SecondTreatise of Government is where he talks about his thought on politics:the understanding that before men say that they should be governed that theyare already living in a state of seamless liberty and equality and are governedby reason. A premium is set on individual freedom and attendant of self-protection.A man may rebuke the individuals who work outside the law of nature, and whomight obliterate his life, freedom, property, or wellbeing; the nonattendanceof a specialist allows all men to go about as one. In chapter nine he clarifieswhat life resembles in a condition of nature however is much clearer about whata significant number of the inconveniences can be. He returns to the idea ofproperty and says that the main reason why men arrange a civil government isbecause they want to protect their property.

In the end, he says that byforming a contract, the people give up their freedom.  21.6 Smith – Wealth of Nations            In Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations,he talks about the economic growth. Smith says that growth is the increase of divisionof labor. This breaks down large jobs into tiny factors. Division of labor createsan addition that gives a more people access to products that would beunaffordable. Since more people can access it, it makes manufacturing increase. 21.

8 Wollstonecraft – Rights ofWomam            In Wollstonecraft’s introduction,she talks about how women are ignored when it comes to education. Since theyare ignored, they become “weak and wretched.” They are told that all they haveto rely on is beauty, which gives them unhealthy minds. She hopes that her workwill “persuade women to endeavor to acquire strength, both of mind and body.”She wants to show that “elegance is inferior to virtue.”   22.1 Declaration of Independence            ThomasJefferson included some grievances in the Declaration of Independence.

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Thesegrievances were about King George III. The complaints were: he refused toenforce laws, he forbade the legislature to pass laws, he refused to pass lawsthat would benefit certain states, he made it difficult for the colonist toparticipate in governance, he denied judges their independence to makedecisions, he refused to protect the people from foreign aggression, and manymore. Jefferson also has enlightenment ideas in the Declaration ofIndependence. One idea is that people are entitled to certain rights because theyare human.

Another idea is that the government is only legitimate when it comesfrom the agreement of the people. Lastly it states that the main reason for agovernment is to protect the people’s right.