15. The philosophy of manifestdestiny was founded from John O’Sullivan’s magazine quote talking about theneed for American’s to proceed to explore the new territory. After reading thisquote the American’s soon began to develop the idea that it was their destinyto spread their culture, customs, and government throughout all the land theexplore and come across. In the beginning part of this section it states theconcept of manifest destiny came from which the nation was founded on;territorial expansion, just as they had done many generations before. Now theAmerican’s believed that this new territory was their opportunity to start anew life by going out to find new resources and exploring for their own individualfinancial benefits. The effect that it had on the American’s migration was thatthey began to push forward and spread their culture and as it says in thearticle, they felt that they had the right to govern every and anyone that theycame across and take from them what they felt was necessary for theirexpansion.

This lead them to believe that the more they expanded, the moreinfluence they would have on anyone they stumbled upon, making it easier forthem to push on. Other groups that applied this philosophy for their ownreasons sooner or later had the same effects, more land, people, resources, andencouragement. Because of this philosophy and the different groups that wentout expanding, many trails were made such as the Oregon trail, Santa Fe trail,and the California trail as well as others. The first and most famous trail wasthe Oregon trail because over 400,00 settlers walked and wagoned their waythrough this two-thousand-mile road between 1845 and 1870.16. The myth of the wild westmade everything seem like it was going to be a perfect chance to start newlives, families, make new opportunities, and explore new lands, but in realitywhen people started to arrive their dreams were crushed, instead of beautifulscenery they got barren wastelands and desert, instead of crops growingmagically in the blink of an eye(exaggeration), they found out that theyactually had to work in harsh conditions such as rain only amounting to fifteeninches, infertile soil which made it impossible to do anything, and even afterthe homestead act two-thirds of the people who came for the “free” landeventually left and returned back to their previous lives because they couldn’tprovide for their families. The life of the cowboy is nothing like people makeit seem, people think of cowboys from movies who do nothing but ride horses allday capturing criminals and drinking with friends, but in reality cowboys hadnon-stop work they went to spending hours rounding up and herding cattle tobutchering and distributing them so they can support their families and thisprocess was their daily routine.

Life for the women was crucial in this time,most of the women that were a part of this were either prostitutes or wivessupporting their husbands. Some women though went along creating churches,schools, etc., so that things could be better.

An example would be like in thebook it says that Abilene, Kansas was a lawless town full of prostitutes,gambling, etc., and when middle class women came in everything changed; they startedbuilding schools, churches, sanctuaries, clubs and programs to improve familyvalues.17. One of themethods they used was trying to negotiate settlements to move tribes out of thepath of white settlers. At first the natives were okay with this because theywere promised no interference with the settlers as well as 50,000 annualpayments to the tribes (meant to last for 50 years but really only lasted forabout 10).

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Everything was fine but then the annual payments never went throughto the natives and expansion grew larger so the designated “safe zones” for thenatives began to become overwhelmed with the settlers, of course some of thenatives fought back but it never ended well. Things started getting out ofcontrol, natives were fighting back harder than ever, one tribe killed overone-thousand white settlers, and when other tribes heard that the tribe wascaptured, banished, and of the few that were hung, they began retaliating aswell. One of the famous battles was near Sand Creek, Colorado, ColonelChavington raided the natives camp and murdered over 100 natives, this wasknown as the Sand Creek Massacre, and ever since this battle, ColonelChavington became a show-pony about the 100 natives scalps he collected fromthat day. The short term effect would be that were stealing their homes,passing diseases, enslaving, and pretty much killing out of fear, and the longterm effect would be that due to all the killing, battles, and expansion, thenatives will sooner or later die out completely because the fight betweenAmericans’ and natives grew rather rapidly during this time. 18. They passed theSunday laws which forbid Hispanics to have noisy amusements, bullfighting,cockfighting, and any other cultural traditions.

They also ordered the greaserlaw that imprisoned unemployed Mexicans under charge of vagrancy, which wasliving in homelessness. They forced natives and Chinese to work in extremelyharsh conditions and employed them with jobs paying way below minimum wage, forexample; our minimum wage now is 7.25, so they’d be getting paid somewherearound 1.00-1.50 (if they were lucky).

The efforts all had one thing in common,to get rid of them, they felt there was need to keep the natives and Chinese ifthey weren’t going to work for them so they started enslaving and killing thosewho refused. Each group responded in the same way, they grew furious andretaliated, it would work for a little while but once the Americans caught up,everything became worse and by the end of it all there’d be about 2-3 out 5%left of them. They had them work as cartmen (food transports), peons (“slaves”,manual laborers), and vaqueros (herders). Life for them was extremely rough,yet people still came to America to better their lives and some came in using a”credit-ticket”, which meant that they were brought over freely but had to payusing labor. Once the Americans’ passed the “Chinese Exclusion Act” the Chinesestopped coming over to America for a ten-year period, so the Chinese that werealready here decided to band together to create their social and centerslocated in San Francisco.19. During the Goldrush, women had plenty of opportunities to make money doing housework, washingclothing, and cooking for the miners. Women were making the same amount if notmore than the miners were in that time.

Women basically had the same jobs theirentire lives, wake up, make breakfast (if lucky), milk cows, yard work,household work, washing, and most important, was being a wife and/or mother.During the westward expansion women practically worked harder than anyonewhether they were miners or clothes washers, track layers or milkers, womenworked extremely hard in very rough conditions which allowed them to prove toothers that women are not weak nor incapable of fending for themselves whicheventually lead to them having their own rights, it didn’t happen very quickly,but they got what they deserved eventually. African-Americans during thewestward expansion had plenty of new opportunities (comparing to what they hadbefore), but it started off with them migrating to the west to escape southernracism and violence. They were known as “exodusters” because of the flight fromEgypt from the bible, thousands of African-americans migrated to the west nearKansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas as well as along theMississippi river. They obtained various jobs such as farmers, cowboys, andeven “Buffalo Soldiers” who fought against the Indians. They were given thisname from the natives because they pretty much looked like a buffalos “twin”what with the dark skin and curly hair, kind of funny if you think about it J. The westwardexpansion gave them plenty of opportunities but also limited them, for womensome states didn’t allow them to get jobs such as teachers, cooks, orseamstresses, and most of the women suffered the same circumstances as the mensuch as the weather, danger, and diseases as well as childbirth complications.The African-americans were limited in that they still had rarely any rightsdepending on where they went or what the occupation was, many suffered fromharsh conditions with little to no pay, as well some that died serving asminers, soldiers, and even farmers, they suffered from either being unable tocare for their families, starvation, or even both.