15. The philosophy of manifest
destiny was founded from John O’Sullivan’s magazine quote talking about the
need for American’s to proceed to explore the new territory. After reading this
quote the American’s soon began to develop the idea that it was their destiny
to spread their culture, customs, and government throughout all the land the
explore and come across. In the beginning part of this section it states the
concept of manifest destiny came from which the nation was founded on;
territorial expansion, just as they had done many generations before. Now the
American’s believed that this new territory was their opportunity to start a
new life by going out to find new resources and exploring for their own individual
financial benefits. The effect that it had on the American’s migration was that
they began to push forward and spread their culture and as it says in the
article, they felt that they had the right to govern every and anyone that they
came across and take from them what they felt was necessary for their
expansion. This lead them to believe that the more they expanded, the more
influence they would have on anyone they stumbled upon, making it easier for
them to push on. Other groups that applied this philosophy for their own
reasons sooner or later had the same effects, more land, people, resources, and
encouragement. Because of this philosophy and the different groups that went
out expanding, many trails were made such as the Oregon trail, Santa Fe trail,
and the California trail as well as others. The first and most famous trail was
the Oregon trail because over 400,00 settlers walked and wagoned their way
through this two-thousand-mile road between 1845 and 1870.

16. The myth of the wild west
made everything seem like it was going to be a perfect chance to start new
lives, families, make new opportunities, and explore new lands, but in reality
when people started to arrive their dreams were crushed, instead of beautiful
scenery they got barren wastelands and desert, instead of crops growing
magically in the blink of an eye(exaggeration), they found out that they
actually had to work in harsh conditions such as rain only amounting to fifteen
inches, infertile soil which made it impossible to do anything, and even after
the homestead act two-thirds of the people who came for the “free” land
eventually left and returned back to their previous lives because they couldn’t
provide for their families. The life of the cowboy is nothing like people make
it seem, people think of cowboys from movies who do nothing but ride horses all
day capturing criminals and drinking with friends, but in reality cowboys had
non-stop work they went to spending hours rounding up and herding cattle to
butchering and distributing them so they can support their families and this
process was their daily routine. Life for the women was crucial in this time,
most of the women that were a part of this were either prostitutes or wives
supporting their husbands. Some women though went along creating churches,
schools, etc., so that things could be better. An example would be like in the
book it says that Abilene, Kansas was a lawless town full of prostitutes,
gambling, etc., and when middle class women came in everything changed; they started
building schools, churches, sanctuaries, clubs and programs to improve family

17. One of the
methods they used was trying to negotiate settlements to move tribes out of the
path of white settlers. At first the natives were okay with this because they
were promised no interference with the settlers as well as 50,000 annual
payments to the tribes (meant to last for 50 years but really only lasted for
about 10). Everything was fine but then the annual payments never went through
to the natives and expansion grew larger so the designated “safe zones” for the
natives began to become overwhelmed with the settlers, of course some of the
natives fought back but it never ended well. Things started getting out of
control, natives were fighting back harder than ever, one tribe killed over
one-thousand white settlers, and when other tribes heard that the tribe was
captured, banished, and of the few that were hung, they began retaliating as
well. One of the famous battles was near Sand Creek, Colorado, Colonel
Chavington raided the natives camp and murdered over 100 natives, this was
known as the Sand Creek Massacre, and ever since this battle, Colonel
Chavington became a show-pony about the 100 natives scalps he collected from
that day. The short term effect would be that were stealing their homes,
passing diseases, enslaving, and pretty much killing out of fear, and the long
term effect would be that due to all the killing, battles, and expansion, the
natives will sooner or later die out completely because the fight between
Americans’ and natives grew rather rapidly during this time.


18. They passed the
Sunday laws which forbid Hispanics to have noisy amusements, bullfighting,
cockfighting, and any other cultural traditions. They also ordered the greaser
law that imprisoned unemployed Mexicans under charge of vagrancy, which was
living in homelessness. They forced natives and Chinese to work in extremely
harsh conditions and employed them with jobs paying way below minimum wage, for
example; our minimum wage now is 7.25, so they’d be getting paid somewhere
around 1.00-1.50 (if they were lucky). The efforts all had one thing in common,
to get rid of them, they felt there was need to keep the natives and Chinese if
they weren’t going to work for them so they started enslaving and killing those
who refused. Each group responded in the same way, they grew furious and
retaliated, it would work for a little while but once the Americans caught up,
everything became worse and by the end of it all there’d be about 2-3 out 5%
left of them. They had them work as cartmen (food transports), peons (“slaves”,
manual laborers), and vaqueros (herders). Life for them was extremely rough,
yet people still came to America to better their lives and some came in using a
“credit-ticket”, which meant that they were brought over freely but had to pay
using labor. Once the Americans’ passed the “Chinese Exclusion Act” the Chinese
stopped coming over to America for a ten-year period, so the Chinese that were
already here decided to band together to create their social and centers
located in San Francisco.

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19. During the Gold
rush, women had plenty of opportunities to make money doing housework, washing
clothing, and cooking for the miners. Women were making the same amount if not
more than the miners were in that time. Women basically had the same jobs their
entire lives, wake up, make breakfast (if lucky), milk cows, yard work,
household work, washing, and most important, was being a wife and/or mother.
During the westward expansion women practically worked harder than anyone
whether they were miners or clothes washers, track layers or milkers, women
worked extremely hard in very rough conditions which allowed them to prove to
others that women are not weak nor incapable of fending for themselves which
eventually lead to them having their own rights, it didn’t happen very quickly,
but they got what they deserved eventually. African-Americans during the
westward expansion had plenty of new opportunities (comparing to what they had
before), but it started off with them migrating to the west to escape southern
racism and violence. They were known as “exodusters” because of the flight from
Egypt from the bible, thousands of African-americans migrated to the west near
Kansas, Tennessee, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas as well as along the
Mississippi river. They obtained various jobs such as farmers, cowboys, and
even “Buffalo Soldiers” who fought against the Indians. They were given this
name from the natives because they pretty much looked like a buffalos “twin”
what with the dark skin and curly hair, kind of funny if you think about it J. The westward
expansion gave them plenty of opportunities but also limited them, for women
some states didn’t allow them to get jobs such as teachers, cooks, or
seamstresses, and most of the women suffered the same circumstances as the men
such as the weather, danger, and diseases as well as childbirth complications.
The African-americans were limited in that they still had rarely any rights
depending on where they went or what the occupation was, many suffered from
harsh conditions with little to no pay, as well some that died serving as
miners, soldiers, and even farmers, they suffered from either being unable to
care for their families, starvation, or even both.


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