The next motivation theory is the “Herzburg two-factor theory”. This is two sets of factors – ‘hygiene’ or maintenance factors and ‘motivators’ or growth factors -which affect motivation and work. Hygiene factors serve the purpose of preventing dissatisfaction e. g.

salary, job security, interpersonal relations… motivator factors are factors which will affect the feelings of satisfaction or lack of satisfaction, but do not dissatisfy. Examples of satisfiers are sense of achievement, responsibility, personal growth and achievement. There are problems for managers with this theory too.It has a limited application to manual workers and has a difficulty in distinguishing between the two elements. Skipely and Kiely (1988)4 said in reference to this theory: “Seriously challenge the worth of Herzberg’s theory to industrial sales managers.

It’s application by them will result in a less than wholly motivated and at least partially dissatisfied team of salespeople. ” Mullins (2002) p. 433. If leaders can find substance in this theory then motivation will be achieved and performance improved.

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory (1904) is aimed specifically at work motivation. Three variables; valence, instrumentality and effort are used.Valence is the preferred outcome of a situation for an individual. Instrumentality is expectancy of what’s going to happen.

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If you work out the sum of the expectancy times by the valence, a manger can find out how much force or motivation is required (F={(ExV)). This theory is really good because it can be used to influence both Theory X and Theory Y people. An individual will act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on how attractive the outcome is to the individual, knowing how much motivation is required is the key for any manager to gain high performance levels.(Metcalfe, N. 01/11/02. ) Having looked at motivation theories that give managers an idea how to influence their workers in order to gain the best performance, we can look at power and how leaders fall into different categories according to the effect they have on their followers. French and Raven (1959) defined power in five ways. Reward power is used where people follow you because they think they’ll get what the want or need.

This is a useful source of power to influence an organisations performance because people will be self-motivated to do their work if there’s something in it for them personally.Co-ersive power is based on fear of the leader; people follow a leader with co-ersive power because they think that person will exceed ability. This power can be quite dangerous and lead to extreme forces over people, yet this shows how affective it actually is. Co-ersive power is extremely strong. Legitimate power is power given to someone legitimately through elections for example. They are someone with authority. Tony Blair has legitimate power as the UK’s Prime Minister because he was elected into power.

Referent power requires the leader to have charisma, people follow this sort of leader because they hold a very high degree of respect for them and admire them enough to follow in their footsteps. Princess Diana had referent power. Expert power is the final type, this is where a person holds more knowledge than you and therefore places them above you as an expert, respect is natural. A lecturer holds expert power over their students. (Mullins, 2002. ) Power is a form of deceiving others to get them to perform the jobs you want them to.

Often within organisations : “power strategies are designed solely to promote selfish objectives… people differ in their desire to use power for influencing others.

Some feel comfortable with power, others do not. ” (Greiner and Schien, 1989. p59 and p. 68. ) In order for an organisation to gain it’s highest performance, a huge factor is how content its workers are. Managers can be put in place to ensure the workers are working properly, and the natural leaders that occur within groups can assist with the motivation of the workers.

If a leader within a group is successful, they will have direct influence over how the group is operating. This can be seen in the leader types e. g. successful leadership. The motivation method used combined with their type of power they hold will directly influence the success rate of an organisation. If an inappropriately chosen theory is put in place, workers will become dissatisfied and begin to leave e.

g. poor wages, bad working conditions, low health and safety standards, boring, repetitive jobs.Having a depleted workforce or a constantly changing workforce is unhealthy as it promotes instability. This is one of the dissatisfiers used in Herzburg’s theory – a lack of job security. The organisation will gain a bad reputation and will struggle to keep any employees, which are the essence of any organisation.

In answer to the question asked, does leadership influence organisational performance? I would answer, definitely. Without leaders to provide motivation to their followers, they will become uninterested and their standards of work will drop.