Additional use of Hersey and Blanchard, Telling, Selling and delegating skills also impacts on management and leadership skills with in the workplace. -Telling, is useful for offering direction to new staff, for employees who are unable to or unwilling to meet company objectives, or where job role is repetitive and employees lose sight of aims and objectives. the application of this method in other circumstances could lead to resentment and lack of co-operation from employees.It is well documented that constantly being dictated to, especially when one is deemed competent leads to de-motivation and withdrawal of services, as well as poor relationships between employee and leader.
-Selling, ensures that direction of company goals continues to be filtered by the leader, but takes on the form of a coaching role. Leaders encourage empowerment of the individual by helping them to identify their own strengths and weaknesses within their job role and when completing specific tasks. This provides a positive leadership approach, especially for employees who are motivated.In the larger organisation leadership tends to focus on function, process and control of tasks, this could simple be because there are more employees to consider, therefore leaders have to focus on product achievement, rather than coaching. -Delegating, getting others to take on responsibilities for completing tasks. Leaders identify what has to be done, then hands over the responsibility to the employee. This form of leadership is essential in the success of any business. However these leadership skills are implemented depends on the size of the company and the personality of the leader.
In larger organisations delegation is merely the shift of responsibility with in the levels of management. In smaller organisations the art of delegation is crucial. Therefore a good leader will delegate tasks to individuals, which match their current skills and abilities. They will encourage individual to work together to from teams, sharing skills, knowledge and abilities in order to meet company objectives. Adopting this form of leadership enable individuals to identify what has to be done, as well as providing the motivation to do it.
www. cda-acd. forces ConclusionBy nature of the products and services offered, both organisations have managers and leaders who adopt different approaches in order to meet organisational goals. Both organisations operate in an autocratic style, delegating tasks and instructions, which must be adhered to for continued success. Leadership skills vary according to the size of the organisation, but do take into account individual self-confidence, ability and readiness to accept responsibility as well as their relevant skills and technical knowledge.
When carried out effectively, this form of approach enables monitoring and measurement of business progression and success.When leaders become ineffective I identifying needs it can lead to dissatisfaction, as most people tend to resent the style of autocratic management. It could be argued that relationships of leaders are slightly stronger within the smaller organisation because there are fewer employees to lead and therefore if respects are gained from the beginning (if the leader is one who can inspire) then bonding remains strong. In larger organisations because there are more employees, it requires more leaders to large to manage projects, therefore whilst respect may remain high, bonding is deemed low.When this style of leadership is in force it can lead to high levels of absenteeism and higher turn over of staff.
However, for mangers the advantages of this type of control outweigh the disadvantages. Task three Task three Theoretical beliefs of Maslow, Hertzberg and Vroom will be identified what a view to how they impact within the workplace. http://en. wikipedia.
org/wiki/Maslow’s_hierarchy_of_needs Abraham Maslow developed a theory related to an individual’s needs, called Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. He believes the behaviour of an individual in the workplace id determined by their strongest need.It is therefore essential that managers and leaders adopt styles t address these needs. Maslow suggests that the base of the triangle is deemed the highest priority in terms of needs (physical and security); it is these needs that a person is motivated to fulfil first. Within the workplace, individuals seek to fulfil various needs within the triangle, for example. Vroom’s expectancy theory This theory assumes that behaviour results from conscious choices among alternatives whose purpose it is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain.Together with Edward Lawler and Lyman Porter, Victor Vroom suggested that the relationship between people’s behaviour at work and their goals was not as simple as was first imagined by other scientists.
Vroom realized that an employee’s performance is based on individual’s factors such as personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. The theory suggests that although individuals may have different sets of goals, they can be motivated if they believe that:Valence refers to the emotional orientations people hold with respect to outcomes [rewards].The depth of the want of an employee for extrinsic [money, promotion, time-off, benefits] or intrinsic [satisfaction] rewards). Management must discover what employee’s value.
Expectancy Employees have different expectations and levels of confidence about what they are capable of doing. Management must discover what resources, training, or supervision employees need. Instrumentality The perception of employees as to whether they will actually get what they desire even if it has been promised by a manager.Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of that. Vroom suggests that an employee’s beliefs about Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence interact psychologically to create a motivational force such that the employee acts in ways that bring pleasure and avoid pain. Conclusion Unlike Maslow and Hertzberg theory Vroom’s theory serves to highlight how individual goals influence performance; therefore the employment of individuals who are self motivated is crucial to the success of any organisation.
it is deemed that if an employee is motivated from within, then the leader job as a “motivator” is less taxing. It could therefore be viewed that management processes within the workplace should be sufficient enough to challenge and utilise the the full potential and ability of the individual. When an individual shows increasing levels of ability they should be given additional levels of responsibility in order to prevent dissatisfaction occurring.
www. arrod. co. uk Task Four Task four Groups from essential tools for management and come together within the workplace to meet organisational goals.They are normally made up of permanent and temporary individuals. Formal groups stem from tasks implemented by organisational structures in order to achieve a short-term purpose. Informal groups stem from the need to communicate with other departments within an organisation in order to meet the needs of the organisation or simply for additional friendships.
In response to the complexities of 21st Century business life, organisations are seeking to adopt flatter organisational structures, thereby encouraging more team oriented environments.Groups are therefore normally allocated according to specialist knowledge, use of problem solving skills, creativity and level of productivity capabilities, all of which fulfil organisational purposes and contribute to the overall success of the business under the direction of a leader or manager. According to Adair’s Functional approach (1986) to make a team effective, managers and leaders need to concentrate on 3 main functions some of which are indicated When groups come together they provide stimulus, protection and assistance all of which fulfil social and physiological needs.Therefore collective groups can work together in the interest of the organisation as well as individuals members. Teamwork has transformed workplace functions individuals who cannot perform within teams often find themselves isolated and de-motivated. Working in a larger organisation in the 21ST Century often meaning participating in offsite team activities in order to encourage more effective bonding of its members. No longer is it acceptable that one person becomes responsible for a project, individuals are expected to be multi-skilled and to share those skills for the good of the company.
Bales (1965) suggests that in order or groups to be successful there needs to be shared sense of purpose, communication, good interaction by all, responsibility, the use of effective problems solving skills and commitment. For group ‘Norms and Cohesiveness’ many organisations adopt Tucker’s 4stage and Johnson and Johnson 7 stage group development model. This assists organisations with better leadership skills and group understanding as follows: 1. Defining structure- Group members learn what is expected of them through leaders clarifying and organising individual roles and responsibilities.2. Conforming- Groups come together to perform the task. Team roles are flexible through strengths and weaknesses and solutions are found and implemented.
3. Recognition and trust- individuals within the group recognise their own independence. They begin to build trust with other members, sharing thoughts, ideas and feelings. Whilst at the same time experiencing acceptance, support and reciprocation from peers.
4. Rebelling- Tuckman (1965), referred to this as storming, where internal conflicts and disagreements occur as individual differentiate from each other.5. Ownership- dependence of each other within the group as well as personal commitment in achieving the given task. 6. Function and productivity- in this phase the group provides maturity, autonomy, and production resulting in a fully functional and high performing team. Members become more committed to each other as well as to the overall goal.
Each member has the ability to handle controversy in a positive and constructive manner. Problem solving is shared by the group and group harmony is enhanced through the equal division of tasks and responsibility.