1. As people argue, whether a democratic style of leadership is more effective than an authoritarian style. Democratic style, which can improve organizational effectiveness by tapping the ideas of people with knowledge and experience, and by involving them in a decision-making process to which then become committed. , moreover, the development of participative management is part of a wider social and political trend which had raised expectations concerning personal freedom and the quality of working life.
These social values encourage resistance to manipulation by impersonal bureaucracies and challenge the legitimacy of management decisions. Participation thus reflects evolving democratic social and political values. 2. As autocratic management stifles, creativity, ignores available expertise, and smothers motivation and commitment,,,, however, in some circumstances, the autocratic style are effective and necessary.
Such when time is short, when the leader is the most knowledgeable person, or when who could participate but never all agree on a decision.Image at the moment of truth of a basketball game, the coach should be an autocratic leader to deicide the tactics. So, authoritarian is important for a urgent, short-term action, which can do improve productivity. Which style of leadership is most effective depends on the kind of situation the leader is dealing with.
Assume that a consultant company with clear and structured tasks. Each consultant knows his own job. Under this circumstance, we can predict that the company will work more efficiently if the leader is relation-related than task-related.
On the other hand, the assembly line, the leader comes under pressure of an urgent demand. Although the workers know exactly how to do their jobs, can you predict whether it will be fulfilled before lead time led by a task-related leader or a relationship-related leader. But in very favourable situations, task-related leaders can focus on cultivating good interpersonal relations because they know the job will get done. Therefore, the most effective leadership style depends on the context.Organizations, the skills of their managers, the characteristics of employees, the nature of their tasks and their structures. No one style of leadership appears universally better, although a good deal research indicates that a considerate, participative or democratic style of leadership is generally (not always) more effective.
Further more, as the more and more MNCs, managers should be sure to consider national culture as an important variable in choosing a leadership style. Charismatic, Transformational and Transactional LeadershipSome research in the behavioural vein is being done on the quality of charisma. Charisma is a special quality of leaders whose purpose, power and extraordinary determination differentiate them from others. It also a positive and compelling quality of a person which creates a desire in many others to be led by him or her. For example, a highly charismatic supervisor will be more successful in influencing subordinate behaviour than a supervisor who lacks charisma. Thus, influence is a fundamental element of this perspective.
Although we can identify instances of positive charismatic leadership such as Kennedy and Gandhi, the dark side of charisma is typically revealed by efforts that encourage devotion to self. Transformational leadership, a broader concept than charisma, implies reshaping entire strategies of an organization. It shows charisma and vision and instills trust, pride and respect It inspires, sets high expectations, and uses symbols.
It promotes intelligence and creative problem solving. It gives personal attention, considers individuals, and coaches. Transformational leadership is often distinguished from transactional leadership.Transactional leadership occurs when a leader motivates followers by exchanging rewards for high performance and noticing and reprimanding subordinates for mistakes and substandard performance. Its rewards are contingent on performance. It focuses on exceptions and deviations from rules. It intervenes only when standards are not achieved. It avoids difficult decisions and responsibilities.
Transformational leaders may also engage in transactional leadership, say rewarding high performers with high salaries. But they go one step further by actually lead to the performance of organizational citizenship behaviours.