In the article, the author tries to explain that most of the obligations mentioned above are identifiable to individuals such as customers, employees, shareholders and so on, and that there is nothing really “social” about these obligations. Here, the author then goes ahead to elaborate exactly what makes the oil spill a matter of social responsibility, and explains that the fact that the risks of the companys’ deep-water drilling operations are they responsibility of the society at large.He explains that the negative effects of the spill on the people not economically involved with the company are involved here as they bear the risks taken by the companys’ operations there. And due to the fact that all production processes involve externalities as suggested by the author, the question of corporate social responsibility has something to do with the extent to which a company is responsible for those effects, and their obligation not just to avoid social harms or risks, but to contribute socially beyond making a product people value.As the author states, “From a CSR point of view, then, the question with regard to BP is whether the risks taken were reasonable. Most of us would say “no.

” But then most of us still want plentiful cheap gas. Thus the BP oil spill provides an excellent way to illustrate the way we should understand the scope of the term “corporate social responsibility,” and how to keep that term narrow enough for it to retain some real meaning. ” (Chris MacDonald, 2010)This point makes a lot of sense whereby the customers want to buy the products at the lowest possible cost, but complain then the company refrains from some aspects of their operations so as to cut costs, provide the cheapest price which is their main source of revenue, as well as make a profit which is BPs’ sole responsibility as a business. Therefore the author is basically urging the customers and community at large to try and look at the issue from a business point of view, and then maybe they will understand how the business works towards achieving its various goals.Recommendation: So, I relation to the incidents that have occurred to BP, and the manner that the company has dealt with them, certain recommendations can be made based on some theories. Descriptive Ethical Theory: This is a theory that aims to describe how ethical decisions are actually made in a business and what influences the process and outcomes of those decisions. This means that BP should be more descriptive and transparent about their values in regard to ethics, and elaborate why they practice such values and from what point of view they are looking at it from.

This enables critics and the general public to understand how BPs’ ethics were developed thus maybe they will not be too critical in the future. It can be suggested that in their elaboration of values and other ethical issues that the company may want to address, BP should mention and try to make its readers understand that they are a business and that their main aim is to make profits.Once the interested parties are aware of this fact, then the company can show that in that respect, they are willing to go an extra mile and chip in to keep the community safe and as clean as possible though every product has a byproduct which needs to be deposited somewhere. If BP can show a good channel through which it can handle a crisis and/or technical hazard, then it should not be criticized as much as they have. All this criticism came along because the company was hiding facts from the public and once these facts got out; they were in trouble and tried to do some serious damage control.

Cognitive Moral Development: This is another recommendation that BP could use in its damage control and in the development of its ethnical decision making process. CMD can be referred to as the different levels of reasoning that an individual can apply to ethnical issues and problems. This is a very vital element in their damage control programs as it recognizes that everyone is different thus the opposes group show be identified and damage control done on them accordingly.If they are dealing with professional, they damage control board should be free to use business terms and regulations, but when dealing with third parties whose concern is their environment and have little to no business literacy, simple but effective explanations can be used to bring them to understand the approach that the business is taking.

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Conclusion: Therefore, as can be seen through this research, companies do come to a point where their reputation and values are questioned and criticized, and they should be ready to deal with them in the utmost efficiency and effectiveness.BP is an organization that is involved in extracting products that are of use by their customers worldwide and handles vast operations in many different locations all over the globe. Therefore they should structure their values and ethnical practices according to these regions and not try to come up with a universal code of conduct.

Also, it can noted that, since businesses have to sole purpose of making a profit, and this fact has been supported by several theories such as Milton’s and a few others mentioned above, they tend to carry out certain actions due to the circumstances that they are facing.As can be seen with BP which is involved in a non-price competitive industry, they try to minimize costs so as to maximize profits in ways that are not understood by ordinary people and therefore they should take steps in order to clarify this with the professions as well as the ordinary people that are affected by any occurrence that threatens to damage the environment around them.Last but not least, BP needs to include the recommended theories in their damage control as well as response to a crisis so as to be able to save their reputation and keep their image which is vital in a non-price competitive industry, so as to maintain their customer threshold and so on.REFERENCE:BP Company Profile, By Oilcareers ltd, 2010 Website: http://www.

oilcareers. com/content/coprofile/BP. asp (Viewed on 3rd November 2010)