The main conclusion, what we can draw from the list, is that Hungarian top managers are quite positive about themselves in relation to professional knowledge and practice orientation. It is also encouraging that business sense has an eminent rank, which allows the conclusion that local leaders have learned the lesson of market economy. Among the weaknesses the contrast in relation to risk taking is fairly deep: while managers consider it as key value future leaders, they don’t feel to have it at their disposal.

Unfortunately this weakness accompanies with weak performance in promoting ideas, which can be a serious disadvantage in a challenging economy, like Hungary. I think the early publishing date (3Q1999) of the research explains the unfavorable rank of computer skills. In 1997 internet, E-business meant future opportunity only to a small professional group, I believe that this fact explains its low position both in the real and ideal rank of managerial skills. I strongly believe, that if we repeated the research today, when e-business is a double digit growing industry, computer skills could have reached a more eminent position.

It is also interesting to compare the real and ideal position of communication skills. I think the difference can be explained with the lack of language skills, which is a problem at both state-owned and multinational companies. If we accompany language skills with practice time, then a certain duality can be observed: young managers between 25-35 dispose over excellent language skill, but they have insufficient practical knowledge and personal connections, while elder managers have a long practice but meet difficulties in communicating with the mother company or the foreign owner.To sum up the similarities and differences, we can describe Hungarian top managers as professionally prepared, pragmatic leaders, who succeeded to adapt to the challenging environment. On the other hand the low level of risk taking willingness, and the weak abilities of promoting ideas hinder the offensive leadership. 2. Leadership styles Before taking a closer look into leadership styles I must express my view that there is strong interdependence and interaction between the values and cultural background of the top manager on one side, and the organizational culture and behavior norms on the other side.

A good leader can and also has to influence the organizational culture, and create a climate which best serves the organization to reach its objectives. On the other hand the organizational culture also influences the leader, and results a divergent process, where not only the organization but also the leader changes and adjusts until they fit each other.In this relation leadership styles can be group according to the interaction of 3 dimensions: (1) how Hungarian managers judge the necessity of particular managerial skills in the recent economical environment, (2) whether the company of the given top manager meets this requirements and (3) whether the leader himself meets the same requirements. The previously mentioned research distinguished 3 main groups in leadership styles according to the described dimensions.In order to fit the international fashion and to better highlight the differences between the groups with the association the author of the research borrowed the name of animals for naming the groups. The groups and their main features are the following: “Mules” Average professional background, long routine and intuitive leadership characterizes this group. Unfortunately they don’t seem to be prepared for new challenge, because business sense and risk taking willingness is below the average. Future orientation is also a problematic area, because promotion of ideas is not their strength.

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Leaders are introverted and disappointed in traditional managerial virtue. The companies represented by this group of leaders were mostly important state-owned companies, which were privatized in the mid ’90s. The recent main shareholders are typically either foreign companies or local banks. These companies are mainly active in the Hungarian market, where they produce balanced annual profit, and turnover. The termination of limited rationality describes the best this segment. Their extraordinary toughness and long practical experience ensure the survival.

“Tigers” The most dynamic and open segment.Their strengths are excellent educational background, communication skills, good business sense and high level of risk taking willingness. The group seems to be very self-confident, they assess themselves with high level of managerial abilities, except some traditional values like leadership and organizational skills.

Only privatized local or multinational companies belong to this group. They usually produce for export and dispose over extended connection to international markets. High level of proactivity, maximality, logical thinking, rationality characterizes the leaders, who are typically around 40 years old.Doubtless this is the most promising segment, because it possesses over all abilities which can help to succeed in a challenging environment. “Elephants” It is the group of traditional managers, they have smaller or larger insufficiencies in educational background, but they recognized the direction of change, and are rapidly developing the desired abilities like promotion of ideas, business sense, etc. On the other hand the lack of practice orientation and the low level of risk taking willingness make us worry about the potential success.Leaders in this group ranked leadership, communication and professional skills as most important abilities. Problem solving can be described with strong intuitivity.

The managers in this group are typically not the leaders of the largest companies. On the other hand these corporate are strongly export-oriented, but still partly state-owned. Although they have a long journey in front of them, they move to the right direction. As the groups above illustrate, both the Hungarian economy, and the leaders of Hungarian corporate go through a transition process.They can be characterized by a certain duality, which means that new and traditional behavior forms, values and cultural norms live together, interact and bring closer or separate organizations and leaders. V.

Conclusion The main assumptions of the essay can be summarized as the following: – Hungary went through a very painful, but in its result a quite successful transition period in the last decade. The institutional background of democracy and market economy is well developed, although further smaller adjustments are needed.- The Hungarian culture has long and strong roots in history, the national character can be quite well described with the following phrases: “optimistic pessimism, “genie land”, “revolving door” effect, “passive resistance” and “vitam et sangviem! “. – Organizational culture shows a mixed picture, the contrast between the present and desired future situation is quite visible. There are great reserves in the area of performance orientation and uncertainty avoidance, while future and human orientation has to be gradually improved in the future.A supportive HR management can help a lot to get free the opportunities.

– According to the orientation of the organizational culture 4, strikingly different clusters can be distinguished among Hungarian companies. – Hungarian leaders are generally strong in professional knowledge and practice orientation. Problem solving and risk taking willingness are the most desired managerial abilities. – Hungarian leaders can be divided into 3 groups: mules, tigers and elephants. This categories describe the main leadership styles of local top managers.