Small-localised farms produced crops that have biodiversity, which is the variability within and between species and within and between ecosystems. The disappearance of biodiversity could lead to losses of important nutritional sources for the human race and animal species alike. Which is threatened to be destroyed due to the global need for mass-produced non-diverse products (Shiva 2000).There may be the creation of a rampant system by adding more variations into the natural world which experts and the layperson knows insufficient about; consumer’s awareness of this fact is little if any.
As there is a worldwide growing population, Shiva (2000) argues the intensification of genetic modification is not needed but the intensification of biodiversity is. It is generally assumed genetic engineering yields more crop volume than biodiversity, but Shiva (2000) believes there is no evidence for GM seeds producing higher amounts. Evidence for biodiversity benefits can be seen in seven states of India, which have community seed banks as opposed to Western imported seeds.Locals with enthusiasm produce the organically produced food and debts have been eradicated, whilst incomes have risen dramatically. The global eco-system thrives on diverse species and components which need protection; the production of GM foods may threaten this, although correct knowledge of what may happen is not yet fully understood. The cross-fertilisation issues are unknown; some species could be lost forever as dominant ones take over the less dominant.
For example, when foreign species enter into an eco-system not designed to cope with it e.g. the dominance of grey over red squirrels.The issue of GM foods affects worldwide politics also; governments monitor issues such as the importation and exportation of food between individual countries. They introduce policies that prohibit importing foods with certain additives/ingredients. For example, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a European policy objective that monitors the movement and production of food agriculture in and between the EU member countries.
This highlights the trade relations between separate individual countries and governments do impose counter trade barriers, for example the French banning British Beef.However, some members of the population believe governments condemn globalisation but then approve actions that then destroy the environment (Shiva 2000: Lecture 5). Currently, a big majority do not want GM foods implementing, however they are still progressing ahead with trials, thus illustrating governments are going against public popular opinion. This shows GM foods as a global issue as the question of whether politics works for people or for industry arises; a hotly debated global topic.In conclusion, it is clearly evident GM foods is a global issue which is a current theme in the media. The GM food issue clearly affects a diverse range of people globally, however many of these do not have sufficient knowledge to be able to understand thee seeds to the farmers who sell the finished product to supermarkets/shops who then sell to the consumer. Although, this is not just a national supply chain it operates on a global level.
Worldwide consumers will bare the force of GM food’s impact and they are not getting enough information from the experts about it as the experts themselves do not know enough, as stated above.Technology is an enabling factor of GM food production and illustrates the usage of scientific progress. It illustrates the reductionist nature of science and technology. As the acceptance and development of it increases, it is likely this will become part of indigenous life in the future. It is quite inevitable this will become a worldwide globally accepted food production method. As and when farmers introduce GM crops, constant evaluation of the effects will be required, I feel by themselves, the governments and the biotechnology corporations.
However, it may be the case that farmers are burdened with more responsibility/incentive to solve any problems arising.As knowledge expands about GM foods, this will become easier. But, with GM food production it cannot be deployed then recalled back if there is problems, just deploying technology haphazardly can have serious consequences (Shiva 2000). It is not reversible – if anything goes amiss it is unclear how it can be reversed which affects everybody as we live in one ecosystem where small sub ecosystems interact with each other.
If one goes wrong another will because nature spreads itself.The global economy is portrayed as a beneficial phenomena but Shiva (2000) argues the damning effects on farmers affected by GM foods shows the adverse impacts of globalisation. Shiva (2000) argues a global culture of sharing is needed to sustain food consumption across the world.
She claims the global economic market trap can be changed to achieve this, but if not, spells disaster for the poor. Nature and culture should be valued highly but globalisation is negatively exploiting them by destruction.However, some would argue farmers were exploited before globalisation and genetic engineering. Others believe that the solution lies more in the complex arena of world finances and politics; that it is about profit making for the global corporations.
New viruses are likely to develop with the advent of GM seeds in agricultural land, this is inevitable, but biotechnology companies believe the benefits outweigh the risks. Although this is to be expected as they are compelled to focus on the benefits as promotion.Overall, the locally produced resources need protection from the major global players which will be difficult as the global demand for food is set to rise as populations increase this puts pressure on increasing land use. However, GM technology supporters argue it could help by increasing the quantity and quality of food produced, at less cost to the environment.
Many global factors are involved such as economic, political and cultural factors, which gives GM foods it’s global theme. However, as it is a rising and quite new current topical theme, much of the GM information sources draw from current Internet articles (which are largely unpoliced) so caution needs to be addressed when utilising them for debate.