I had agreed with my director to design the research in order to find the main factors or variables that are related and affect the absenteeism, in order to take them in consideration at our work, rules and practices, also to introduce them in a recommendations to the top level management and the university council, so I can summarize the problem statement in the following question: What are the main factors that affect the absenteeism? The theoretical framework: The main variable in the research is the absenteeism, which is the dependent variable, which is affected strongly by the four independent variables (satisfaction, age, gender and social status) as shown in the literature review of many of researches and studies that have been designed across the world.It seems from the reviewing the studies, that the job satisfaction is the most factor influence the absenteeism, and has a negatively relationship with it, so if the job satisfaction is high for the employees the absenteeism frequency will be low and the opposite is true also. The satisfaction is an operational variable, it is a concept that reflects many issues and elements that form it, these elements and dimensions had been found and put in questions in order to measure the job satisfaction, they are shown in the questionnaire in the Appendix. The Age also has a negatively relationship with the absenteeism, when the employee become older the absenteeism become less, this implies that a younger employee will be more absent in the work more than the older.The Gender variable is affecting the absenteeism, but the direction of the relation don’t clear very well, because their effect is tied to the culture in the organization and the society and the nature of the labor division, so when the inequality occur the absenteeism will be more between the females employees than males, and if they are equal in front of the rules and the role almost the two have the same absenteeism frequency.
In general, the social status affects the absenteeism, and the direction of the relation don’t clear enough, but for example, we can expect that the married employee will be more absent than a single one, but in our study we will discover if that is true or no in our university. The following Figure will show the schematic diagram for the theoretical frame work. Independent Variables Dependent Variable After clearing and drawing the theoretical framework, and showing the relationships between the four independent variables and the dependent variable, a hypothesis is to be developed, in order to test it, and to generalize the results.
Two hypotheses were developed are: Null Hypothesis: H0: the four independent variables together (satisfaction, age, gender and social status) have no effect on the Dependent Variable (Absenteeism). – H: = 0 : Where = correlation between the independent variables and dependent variable. Alternate Hypothesis Ha: the four independent variables together (satisfaction, age, gender and social status) have effect on the Dependent Variable (Absenteeism).
Ha: = 0 : Where = correlation between the independent variables and dependent variable.The scientific Research Design and Methodology: In this section, in order to test the hypotheses, we will show how we chose the sample from the sampling population, which is the BZU administrative employees, and to clarify how the data collection method that was used, and finally to reach the data processing and analysis. The research population here is the staff in the university, and this population has a frame and it is easy to reach every element in it, so it is consider as a Sampling Population not a Target Population (unlimited, and difficult to reach it’s all elements).From the electronic records in our Department, HRD, I had reached that there are near 400 employees in the university with full information about them, and this number is form the Sampling population that we will take a sample from it to conduct our research. The Sample Size: Many factors affected our research sample size, the limited time is the first thing, because we are to finish the research before the end of the first semester in the university, this mean it must be completed on the beginning of January 2007, and the budget is very limited, because the budget for the department to this year concentrate on Training and development and to develop the Electronic systems that is used to daily work.For the main tow reasons above, we decided to take 55 employees as a sample size, and to build the research upon them, with confidence degree of 95%. The Sample Design: In designing our research sample, we took in the consideration the extent of generalizability of the findings that we will reach at the end, and because of the ease to divide the staff upon meaningful issues to classes, so I chose the Stratified Random Sample, as the most efficient method in the probability sampling methods.
Firstly I divided the administrative employees into three levels according to their work positions as they were appeared in our records, then I found the percentage for each level from the total number (400), 180 are low level, 124 are middle and the rest (96) are high level, in order to reflect this percent as it is possible, in our sample size, so the sample size was distributed as following: – The low level (25 employees). – The middle level (17 employees). – The high level (Director and above, 13 employees). Then a random selection had been used in every level.The main toll for collection the data was the questionnaire, in addition to the preliminary data collection and the informal interviews in the beginning of the study, which were useful and helped me in developing the questionnaire itself. Three-research assistant had been trained theoretically and applicably for the goal of how to distribute the questionnaire and collecting the data.
The questionnaire included the question that related to the variables in the study, and some other questions are added to give us possibility to some descriptive analysis in the end. So the questionnaire contained question upon the independent variables (age, gender, social status and the job satisfaction which is an operational variables that has been indicated through its elements), and the dependent variable (Absenteeism) were remained to the end to be fill out from the employees records in our HRD.The questionnaire has included 9 items, with 18 questions, 8 items are dealing wit clear direct questions, and they had been scaled by tow types of scale: the open ended (Ratio Scale) questions, about the name, age and the position. Likart Scale had been used to indicate and measure the operational variable (satisfaction), which had been divided into 10 elements, with 5 answers for each, that reflect its concept and consist its dimensions, and the respondents were asked to answer them by chose one of the five answers which is ranked form “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”. To the remaining questions, the nominal scale had been used, to provide us with some classification and categories to the data if we need it in the final analysis.
To insure the Validity of the operational variable elements, I had shown it to the Dr. Samir Baidoun, who is a well-known expert in the management, and he gave me a useful feedback that assured the validity. In order to examine the reliability of the tool that is to measure the operational variable, we used test- retest reliability, by repetition the questionnaire after 2 weeks at the same sample, to see its stability, and the reliability coefficient were high which implies a high stability for the questionnaire. To the purpose of insuring the reliability of the inter-items consistency, we get the coefficient (Chronbach Alpha) from the calculation which is equal 0.896, that means the inter-items consistency is high and we have a good measure tool.