They also protect organs like the liver and kidneys.

 When we run marathons or take part in endurance events, our body uses fats as an emergency energy source once all our carbohydrates have been used up. Fats are found in bacon, fatty meats like sausages, butter, margarine, cooking oil and salad cream, most cheeses, milk, nuts and sweets and chocolate. There are two types of fat: ? Saturated fats: These are found in animal products such as meat, cheese, milk and cream. The cholesterol in these fats can clog arteries and lead to high blood pressure and heart disease.Polyunsaturates are found in fish oils and products made from vegetable seeds such as sunflower and corn. Keeping body fat under control can be very difficult for a lot of people, and fortunes are made devising new “diets” because more people are overweight in this country than ever before.

There is also a fear of fat that is causing some people, women and girls especially, to stay dangerously underweight. The only way to stay an appropriate weight is to keep a balance between food intake and the calories we burn.What two chemicals make up lipids and what happens if the lipids stored Lipids are a large and varied group of organic compounds.

Like carbohydrates, they contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, although the proportion of oxygen is much less in lipids. They are insoluble in water but dissolve readily in organic solvts such as acetone, alcohols and others. Lipids are of two types; fats and oils. There is no basic difference between these two, fats are simply solid at room temperatures (10-20 degrees celsius) whereas oils are liquids.

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The chemistry of lipids is very varied but they are esters of fatty acids and an alcohol, of which glycerol is by far the most abundant. Glycerol has three hydroxy (-OH) groups and each may combine with a separate fatty acid, forming a triglyceride. This is a condensation reaction, and so hydrolysis of the triglyceride will again give glycerol and three fatty acids.As most naturally occurring lipids contain the same alcohol, namely glycerol, it is the nature of the fatty acids which determines the characteristics of any paticular fat. All fatty acids contain a carboxyl group (-COOH). The remainder of the molecule is a hydrocarbon chain of varying length. This chain may possess one or more double bonds, in which case is it unstaurated, and if it has no double bonds then it is unsaturated.

 Lipids have many functions: they are an energy source and can be broken down to yield double the energy of carbohydrates. For this reason they make excellent energy stores. They also act as insulators as they conduct heat very slowly and so can help retain body heat.

Lipids also provide protection, as a packing material around delicate organs, and can function as a waterproof layer.Centre for Health and Social Research (1999). Community Development Approaches in Primary Health Care – Options for Obesity Management. A report commissioned by HEBS/NBS/SCPGMDE, Edinburgh. A study (1) of US adults from 1988 through 1991 found 33% to be obese (defined as more than 20% overweight), 25% higher than in the years 1976 through 1980.

 Recent guidelines (2) recommend 30 minutes per day of moderate exercise on most or, preferably, all days.To lose weight, it’s best to exercise 7 days a week if possible. This, of course, may not be so easy. One big factor in exercising regularly is an accessible workout. Walking is not only accessible but one of the best activities for losing weight and gaining fitness. The ultimate goal is 60 minutes of walking or other comfortable exercise each day.

But start with whatever you can comfortably achieve, even if it’s only 1 minute. Begin at a leisurely pace.Psychological effects. Brownell (9) has also speculated that the psychological impact of exercise is a key mechanism for weight control.

Patients who exercise regularly are likely to be less depressed, have higher self-esteem, and have an improved body image (9). Regular exercise may also reduce stress and anxiety–elements that represent a high-risk situation for many dieters (17). An active lifestyle seems to be one of many factors that converge to help people manage their weight.1.

Brownell KD: Exercise in the treatment of obesity, in Brownell KD, Fairburn CG (eds): Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook. New York City, Guilford Press, 1995, pp 473-478 2. 17Kayman S, Bruvold W, Stern JS: Maintenance and relapse after weight loss in women: behavioral aspects. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52(5):800-807 Exercise and Weight: Current Evidence Simply having patients increase their level of exercise without restricting calorie intake is a relatively ineffective way to lose weight.

When combined with a healthy diet, however, increased aerobic and strength exercise may result in optimal changes in body composition by contributing to a negative energy balance and preserving lean body mass.Exercise, an Active Lifestyle, and Obesity Making the Exercise Prescription Work Ross E. Andersen, PhD THE PHYSICIAN AND SPORTSMEDICINE – VOL 27 – NO.

10 – OCTOBER 1, 1999 Over the past decade, the prevalence of obesity has increased at an alarming rate in the United States and in other developed countries around the world. In fact, the World Health Organization has acknowledged that there is a “global epidemic of obesity.” What Can Physicians Do About Obesity.References1. Blackburn GL, Duyer J, Flanders WD, et al: Report of the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN) Steering Committee on Healthy Weight. J Nutr 1994;124(11): 2240-22432. Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN, et al: Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine.

JAMA 1995;273(5):402-407