It is widely believed that China is a giant in human capital. The population of China has risen to 1. 3 billion, although China’s growth rate has slowed. However, the report “The Emerging Global Labor Market” from the McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) shows that few of China’s vast number of university graduates are capable of working successfully, and the fast-growing domestic economy absorbs most of those who could. From the report we can find that there is a predicament in China’s labour market, especially in some specific fields. Take engineers as an example.
In 2003, China has 1. 6 million young engineers, but the number of those who have been considered suitable for work in multinationals is just 160,000. The shortage is enormous. How can we solve this problem? The solution may be vocational education ; training. Vocational education ; training is an important part of Human Resource Development.
It is broadly defined as any type of job-related learning that raises an individual’s productivity, and includes learning in formal vocational training centres or institutes, or in the workplace, both on and off the job (Mun C. Tsang, 1999).The two main parts of vocational education & training in China are Company-based vocational training system and Professional Certification training system. Which of these two learning activities is more efficient for a company to train their employees? The answer is still not clear. Both of these two systems are popular in China. No doubt one of the main responsibilities of HR managers is to arrange suitable and efficient training programmes to develop their colleagues’ ability. Considering the time and money limit, they must choose an optimal solution. However, which of the two training system is superior?It is interesting that not much research focus on this area in China although it is very important for China’s future labour market.
The opinions above are just based on my own values and knowledge background and I hope that these will be helpful to those who are interested in this topic. Company-based vocational training system Company-based vocational training system is considered as a training process offered by a certain company. Its creation and operation are all controlled by a certain department in the company, which in most cases is the HR department.This kind of training system is generally called the company’s own college. In China, some famous companies, such as General Electric Company (GE), Procter ; Gamble (P;G), and Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.
P (HP), have established successful vocational training system. They provide many excellent talents not only for themselves but also for other companies in China. Company-based vocational training system is of great importance in China’s vocational education & training area. As mentioned above, the company-based vocational training progremme is fully controlled by the enterprise.In order to better explain this system, I take the P&G College as an instance. P&G is a typical employer who spent a lot of time cultivating its workforce.
P&G boasts 23 brands in 80 countries around the world and 12 of these countries have sales above $1 billion. It is the market leader in everything from detergent to diapers to razors. One reason of the company’s success can be its solid strength and distinguished marketing skills, another one must be its personal career management-bringing in large quantities of outstandingly talented people.These are all benefited by the careful training and career development. P;G College consists of three departments: Headquarters’ General Manager (GM) Institute, Regional P&G Institute and Function Institute. It also has three different curriculum systems: Class M for Management, Class A for Administration and Class T for Technology. Different levels of the same class are provided in different departments. The structure of the P&G College is shown in the Figure 1 as followed.
Figure 1 The P&G’s Training System P;G College has many characteristics.It offers training programmes to all the people, working in and out of the company. The whole courses are comprehensive and trainees can choose their own subjects based on the types of jobs. Moreover, all the instructors are people who have positions in P;G and the promotion and performance evaluation of the instructor is linked with the promotion of their posts in P;G, which made it’s training system quite outstanding. Professional Certification training system The Professional Certification training system appears and advances because of China’s special employment environment.Due to the huge labour force of China, thousands of people are looking for jobs and the employees working in the HR department have to face numerous CV every day.
Is there any method to screen these CV much more quickly? The Professional Certification system turns up. The Professional qualification certificate, for example, Certified Public Accountant (CPA) and Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA), has become the entry threshold of many enterprises. People who press for jobs will focus on how to get the qualification as soon as possible. The best way may be asking special training institutions for help.
The special training institutions, we can also call them professional certification training companies, have gradually become another important part of China’s vocational education model. In China, the most famous certification training company may be Neworiental, who firstly started its business on special English education such as TOEFL and IELTS. Another company named Sunland Career, however, has more kinds of professional certification training projects in a wide range of fields, from banking industry to lawyer industry. Sunland Career’s main business is training, without other service.It offers different kinds of training programmes, such as CPA, CFA, Psychological Consultation, Nutritionist etc, which can be chosen by individuals. The promise that the company will provide continue training to the trainees until they pass the qualification examination is clearly written in the contract.
This means that you can take another training process in the same field for free if you did not get the certification after the first period of education. In addition to this personal training area, Sunland Career has an independent department called Sunland Business School, which offers training programmes to other companies specifically.Sunland can adjust the existing curriculum system by the demands of consumers. Full service including initial test, process control, performance-oriented courses adjustment and detailed results report is the characteristic of the company. Some famous companies have been its customers, for instance, Bank of China.
The structure of the Sunland Career is shown in Figure 2 as followed. The company offers different curriculum system in the department for individuals and the department for the company, which called Sunland Business School.