Is post bureaucratic organization is the answer to all those uncertainties related with globalization? On paper the idea of flexibility and adaptability of any organization looks quiet unique, giving employees a sense of and control, an organization which is responsive to the customer’s needs but in reality is it even possible and the question remains that how much manageable is it to lead by incentive and persuasion?
How can we manage cultural change within the organization many writers have expressed their views about organizational culture and its characteristics. According to schein organizational culture is “the residue of success” within an organization. Schein’s model, divide organizational culture into three levels as level one shows symbols ,language and visible things, on level two there are organizational norm and behavior it deals with the professed culture of the organizational participants themselves.
At this level, company’s mission statements and other operational creeds are often expressed as well as slogans third level of Schien’s model shows the organization’s tacit assumptions which are the elements of culture that are unseen and not cognitively identified in everyday interactions between organizational members. These are beliefs about organizational culture which are often taboo to discuss inside the organization deeply held beliefs.
For instance, an organization can profess high moral standards at the second level of Schein’s model and at the same time display quite opposite behavior. On surface organizational rewards may mean one norm but on the same time it may suggest something completely different. So it also gives us some insight into understanding the difficulties which an organizational newcomer has to face.
Only understanding culture at the deepest level may not be enough to institute cultural change, because the dynamics of interpersonal relationship are added to the dynamics of organizational culture in the process of instituting desired change. Hofstede a prominent Dutch writer about organizational and national culture says that, “Managing international business means handling both national and organization culture differences at the same time.
Organization cultures are somewhat manageable while national cultures are given facts for management; common organization cultures across borders are what holds multinationals together. (http://feweb. uvt. nl/center/hofstede/, 04-01-06) But does a multinational company have to have a common organizational culture to exceed? Or if it is so, to what extent is it possible? Now in such a situation it is said that the challenge to HRM is to facilitate cultural change within the organization,
Today role of HRM in any organization is going through different changes started in 1980’s when the debate was mainly on the exploration of the salient aspects of the transformation of personnel management into HRM. Having done so, it moved on to issues pertaining to the incorporation of industrial relations into HRM then the integration of HRM into business strategies, devolvement of HRM to line managers, and finally seeing HRM as a source of competitive advantage for organizations. Currently, there is an ongoing debate regarding the contribution of HRM to a firm’s performance.
With these developments the nature of Human Resource (HR) function has changed from being reactive, prescriptive, and administrative to being proactive, descriptive and some times executive. Globalization implies accepting that cultural diversity in management composition and management style contributes to the competitive advantage of the global agency. Also, effective globalization calls for the pursuit of a number of management approaches that, on paper, may seem contradictory, but that can truly be effective only through their simultaneous and balanced application.
Human resource management has to provide an organized framework for developing and managing people who are comfortable with the strategic and operational paradoxes of global organizations and who are capable of managing cultural diversity. To develop and manage a global organization implies developing and managing people who can think, lead, and act from a global perspective, and who possess a global mind as well as global skills. Not one, two, or a dozen international specialists, but a multitude of executives, managers, and professionals are needed to form the core of a global organization.
The process of globalization requires a progressive transformation of thinking about the role and tools of human resource management. Changes in the contemporary global economy highlight many of the emerging challenges facing human resource management (HRM). Vast macro societal changes increasingly bind countries into interdependent nations in which goods, capital, and people move freely between these communities. To remain successful in this new global age, organizations are trying to become transnational.
While internalizing strategies those are likely to succeed in global competition there is a need for careful attention to the paradoxes created in the management of human resources and the maintenance of multifaceted organizational cultures. Arguably the survival of any global or Multinational organization in the 21st century depends a lot on HR’s adaptation of global mindset and its ability to manage the cultural change within the organizations. Agencies and their leaders must learn to manage such transformations or they will inevitably lose their competitive edge.
There is a need to have the ability to motivate people to excel, not just to survive; within an organization. The ability to cope with cultural relativity is the key requirement for HR managers to succeed today and tomorrow. Familiar aspects of organizational life such as organizational structure, leadership styles, motivation patterns, training and development models, and the very important concept of human resource management, are culturally relative and, therefore, need to be considered when national boundaries are crossed.
To facilitate such cross-cultural adaptation, what is required is more recruitment of managers from different areas, those who can understand different cultures and the HR practitioners obviously can not work in vacuum if the culture within the organization is changing then all the mangers whether HR or others need to act accordingly as The rigid organizational hierarchy with its monolithic chain of command is giving way to integrated team networks based on autonomy and flexibility.
Rigid departmentalization is being replaced by flexible organizational structure – business units and profit centers that change rapidly. We need to become accustomed to working in organizations that grow and change as if they were alive. . Blind, reactive obedience is giving place to spontaneous, proactive collaboration, and employee commitment. Facilitating the cultural change is the key task for HR practioners in today’s organizations where new value, new style of work, and increased need for flexibility calls for new approach and new skills in the workplace.
(Rosemary&Kessels: HRD in knowledge Economy:p90) “culture has been describe as ‘the shared meanings, hidden assumptions and unwritten rules across the organizations(that) provide the real energy that will either progress or impede change”(sparrow and Hiltrop, 1994:247) in any network organization the level of trust plays a major role and such approach towards management has changed the organizational structure in present time as we see the emergence of different type of networks.
it is said that at present time many organization are very volatile and some what chaotic, James Hite Jr view the role of today’s manager is not just to learn old norms but it’s the new manager who has to lead the change in the way as we relate the agents with the system and changes in the way as learning is integrated in the systems as organizational systems are more sensitive than once believed (learning in chaos: James Hite Jr:287).
Beside all those things mention above we(the HR mangers) need to change our believes about organizations arguably most of HR mangers them selves are still in favor of beauracratic organization or we find it easy to work in a bureaucratic organization as everything is predefined in them, while the challenges in any post-bureaucratic organization are much more bigger but so are rewards not only in terms on money but also in terms of knowledge and better understanding of the different functions of such post bureaucratic organization.
It seems that the future will rely more on intellectual capital, i. e. how to retain and manage the knowledge of the workers. Managers must also devise a way to motivate workers in a changing reality. The HR manager needs to be less concerned about trying to identify what HRM “is” but instead focus on changing HRM practices in a variety of enterprises. (Hite Jr, learning in chaos 286)
The history tells us that every new technology and every change in any type of organization has been mostly considered as dangerous but as we all know that no new invention in any field of life was possible if human kind was to stop experimenting. Any change whether cultural or otherwise has its implications for the organization the future role of HR manager is to try and bring out the best out of changes, which are concerning organization’s culture or any other aspect of organizational function.