Instead, motivational factors are responsible for true motivation of people. They include autonomy of people, challenge, creative opportunities, professional growth, etc. Thus, physical environment and money, as Herzberg believed, are not the factors which truly motivate people. In order to be really motivated, people need to feel the interest of their work, have creative tasks and be sure in professional growth. J. S. Adams’ equity theory is a way distinct from the abovementioned theories as far as it focuses rather on people’s cognitive processes that affect motivation.

J. S. Adams found out that people seek to maintain equity between what they put into job and what that they get out of it. Thus, employees need to be treated fairly in order to give more “inputs” to the organisation, or, if the “outputs” seem to be lower than the inputs, they tend to reduce their efforts or dismiss. Inputs are typically time, efforts, loyalty, etc. Outputs, in their turn, are financial rewards, promotion, respect, reputation, prestige of job, etc (Miner, 2005; McShane and Von Glinow, 2001). The major sources for such “weighing” are employee’s colleagues.

If they are paid more for the same job or have better psychological rewards people may feel themselves unmotivated and vice versa. Thus, observing Adams, the major factor of motivation is making the people feel the balance between the inputs and outputs. If people see that the inputs are fairly and adequately rewarded by outputs they are satisfied with the work and are well motivated. If they consider that their inputs outweigh the outputs, they appear unmotivated to work (Miner, 2005; McShane and Von Glinow, 2001). V.

Vroom’s expectancy model as well looks for external factors and processes that determine motivation. Thus, these very external variables may affect motivational process. As well as J. S. Adams’ theory, Vroom’s model is also cognitive-based. Along with the other theorists like E. Lawler and L. Porter, Vroom supposed that people’s needs and goals are not as simple as they were viewed traditionally. According to Vroom, these are not the needs that have the motivational effects but rather people’s ideas and interpretations of these needs (Miner, 2005; McShane and Von Glinow, 2001).

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V. Vroom supposed that employee’s performance relies on the following individual factors, i. e. : personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities. Respectively, the theory incorporates three beliefs, i. e. valence (emotional attractiveness of the results and rewards), expectancy (expectations of own craftsmanship and professionalism in achieving certain tasks), and instrumentality (the extent to which people consider the results achievable).

Regardless of the great number of motivation theories all of them can be generally divided into two big groups, i. e. content and process theories. These groups of theories focus on different factors and processes that determine and affect people’s motivation. Content theories (Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, D. McGregor’s model, D. McClelland’s three needs model and F. Herzberg two-factor theory) identify the implicit needs of the people and describe the way these needs may be achieved the best way.

Thus, the major factors that affect motivation process in this group of theories are people’s needs. Process theories (J. S. Adams and V. Vroom’s theories) on the contrary explore people’s cognitive processes in respect to motivation. They believe that people are motivated not with the true needs, but rather with what they think of them as well of the work in general. Thus, the key process that affects the motivation in this range of theories is the cognitive process that incorporates people’s reflection over their needs, their work, and other variables.


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