The brewing process begins with the malt being lightly crushed into a coarse powder called grist. The grist is transferred to a vessel called a mash tun where it is mixed or mashed with hot water. This dissolves the starch and allows the enzymes in the malt to convert the starch to sugars. The temperature and time of mashing are critical in determining the quality and characteristics of the final beer. When this process is complete, the mash is transferred to a vessel called a lauter tun where the sugary liquid or wort is separated from the grain residue. The wort from the lauter tun is transferred to a wort kettle where the wort is boiled and the hops are added.

Hops are added at the start of the boil to provide bitterness and may also be added near the end of the boil to add aroma and flavour. Boiling sterilises the wort, removes unpleasant aromas and flavours and makes material, which would cause the wort to become cloudy, clump together or “flocculate”. The wort is transferred to a vessel called a whirlpool, which uses a high speed swirling or vortex effect to remove the unwanted solids. The wort is sent from the whirlpool via a wort cooler or paraflow to a fermentation vessel. As the wort leaves the paraflow, yeast is added, as well as oxygen to allow the yeast to multiply before fermentation begins.

Fermentation.

In brewing, fermentation is the conversion of sugar into carbon dioxide gas (CO2) and ethyl alcohol. Enzymes within a yeast cell carry out this process. It is in fact a complex series of conversions that bring about the conversion of sugar to CO2 and alcohol. Yeast is a member of the plant family and in brewing we use the sugar fungi form of yeast. These cell gain energy from the break down of the sugar.

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The by-product, CO2, bubbles through the liquid and dissipates into the air. The alcohol remains in the liquid which is great for us but not for the yeast, as the yeast dies when the alcohol exceeds its tolerance level. Brewer’s yeast tolerate up to about 5% alcohol. Beyond this alcohol level the yeast cannot continue fermentation. Wine yeast on the other hand tolerates up to about 12% alcohol. The level of alcohol tolerance by yeast varies from 5% to about 21% depending on yeast strain.

The fermentation process has other limits such as temperature. Greater than 27C kills the yeast less and than 15C results in yeast activity which is too slow. The amount of sugar in the solution can be too much and this can prevent fermentation. Main ingredients. Malted barely -Is the major source of sugars, which are fermented by the yeast in the later stages of the process. Water – provides the liquid medium essential for the fermentation process. The bulk of beer is water and, as we shall see, water type and quality is essential to the flavour of the final beer.

Yeast – is the key component in brewing, carrying out the fermentation reaction in which enzymes are used to change sugar to alcohol. One thing that would go wrong during the process would affect the brew like bacteria, which is attracted to the ingredients used in the brewing. They can cause problems during fermentation. The results would be that the fine beer would become a sour and cloudy, undrinkable liquid. School – strengths. Ready-made wort would make it easier to make.

It would save a lot of time to make the beer. Kit form School – weaknesses. Cannot be sold as a product. If bacteria get into the alcohol it would taste like vinegar. It would take along time for the alcohol to settle and clear Evaluation. In industry people are making beer in thousands and thousands of barrels a day. Which is done completely by machines so that there would be no errors. In home brewing you have to be very careful on the count that it brewing has to be watched everyday in case something went wrong like the beer getting a disease on the count that the beer was exposed to bacteria in the air. You would have to realise the health and safety hazards to make sure nothing goes wrong, and that you don’t get harmed.

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