1       Avery common disease known as Diabetes AcrossAmerica and around the world.JoseArredondoAntelopeValley CollegeBio202OL           2            Formany years and throughout history there have been various types of diseasesspread throughout the world that affect our health, some more serious thanothers. In today’s society, especially in the United States of America it seemsas though Diabetes is looked as a very common problem in the healthcare systemfound among various individuals of all ages.

There are two types of DiabetesType I and Type II. Type I Diabetes is usually found in children and youngadults in which the pancreas produces little to no insulin in order for Glucoseto enter the cells and produce ATP (Energy).  Type II diabetes on the other hand is wherethe Pancreas does not manage its insulin levels very well called InsulinResistance and eventually cannot keep up with production which results in asugar build up in the blood instead. This build up of glucose in the body iscalled Hyperglycemia, as it is unable to use the glucose as energy.The cells in ourbodies need energy (ATP) to remain active to perform basic functions andsurvive, which is received through food. As we ingest food into our mouths itneeds to be broken down into absorbable units that the body can use to fuel thecells that include Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, Lipids, and Proteins. The bodyimmediately begins to send signals to begin the enzyme breakdown process ofglucose, which is one of the main carbohydrates found in food used for ATP.

ThePancreas is part of the breakdown process in which it produces and releasesinsulin. Insulin is used to lower the sugar level in the blood as it is raisedby the intake of food. Type I Diabetes affects this process by not releasingthe appropriate amount of insulin leading to the aiding of insulin injectionsto reduce blood sugar levels.

3Type II Diabetes affects thisprocess by producing inappropriate amounts of insulin, as the liver cannotrecognize the amount that is currently in the body. The liver serves as insulinstorage as well as producing it when necessary. If there is not a certainamount of insulin production in the body it can release free fatty acids fromstorage by a process called Ketoacidosis which results from the liver breakingdown fats into Ketones that can be toxic in large amounts.The causes of TypeI diabetes can include many factors such as genetics, viruses, environmentalfactors, or the most common in which the body’s immune system responds to fightbacteria and other viruses attacks the insulin producing cells in the Pancreascalled Islet Beta cells. On a cellular level this autoimmune disease ischaracterized essentially by mediated T cells which are lymphocytes producedor processed by the thymus gland and participate in the active auto immuneresponse. These T cells then go on to attack the insulin secreting Beta callsfrom the Pancreas.

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As a result this leads to insulin depletion, which thenturns into hyperglycemia due to the hepatic overproduction of glucose anddecreased cellular uptake by circulation. The absence of insulin then turns toan increase in the breakdown of fats that results in an overproduction ofketones. Ketones are byproducts of the body by breaking down fat forenergy that occurs when carbohydrate intake is low through beta-oxidation, theprocess of this is known as Ketosis. This process can also occur duringstarvation, fasting, and prolonged exercise. If Ketosis is left untreated itcan gradually lead to depression of the nervous system eventually leading up todeath.

4            As previously stated Type IIDiabetes is the abnormal secretion and impairment of insulin secretion byInsulin Resistance. This suppresses the defective hepatic glucose output. Theglucose-lowering action of insulin tends to lead an increase in the bloodglucose concentration that promotes insulin secretion that leads to hyperinsulinemia.

At the beginning, hyperinsulinemia is able to overcome the insulin resistancebut gradually degrades over time. When insulin secretion of the pancreas andliver is outweighed along with miscommunication among the cells, insulinresistance outweighs it and the body turns into a hyperglycemic state. At themolecular level the defective post receptor insulin signal is the main featurein insulin resistance.

The metabolic insulin actions are affected as well asthe fatty acids and broken beta cells leading to increased glucose levels inthe blood. Insulin resistance can have a higher affect in people who are obese.People with insulin resistance often have conditions such as high bloodglucose, extra fat around the waist, high blood pressure, as well as highcholesterol and triglycerides.Although there isno cure found for Type I diabetes, all users must use insulin injection inorder to lower their glucose levels. Frequent blood sugar monitoring isessential for people with this disease as they should meet requirements intheir blood ranging from 80 and 130 mg/dL before meals and no higher than180mg/dL after meals in a 2 hour period.

Regular exercise as well as a healthydiet should also be implemented as it is crucial to having blood sugar levelsin range, which can be affected by a change in any of these factors.  Maintaining ones weight as well as protein,carb, and fat counting also helps to live up to these optimal conditions.5In September of 2016,the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the first artificial pancreasfor people with Type 1 diabetes of ages 14 and older. It’s also calledclosed-loop insulin delivery.

The implanted device links a continuous glucose monitorthat checks the blood sugar levels every five minutes to an insulin pump. Thedevice automatically delivers the correct amount of insulin as needed by theinsulin monitor. Potential future treatments include a Pancreas transplant thatwould no longer require insulin to be administered by injections. Thesetransplants aren’t always successful and very risky, but because the risks canbe more dangerous than the diabetes itself, pancreas transplants are mainlyreserved for those with very difficult-to-manage diabetes. Islet celltransplantation is also a future treatment in which researchers experiment withislet cell transplantation, that provides new insulin-producing cells from apancreas donor. Though the experimental procedure had some problems in thepast, better methods and drugs prevent islet cell rejection and have improvedits future chances of becoming a successful treatment.Unlike Type 1diabetes Type II diabetes can be controlled better with lifestyle changes tonormal glucose levels for a longer period in order to prevent complicationsfurther with time. These lifestyle changes include healthy diet eating alongwith physical activity, blood sugar monitoring, and preventative medicationprescribed by a doctor in some circumstances.

These treatments must be followedin order to live healthy lives and optimal conditions. 6In conclusion,Diabetes in general is a very difficult disease to manage and live with but itis possible with current treatments as well as healthy lifestyle changes inorder to reduce the risk of further complications in life.  Though there is no cure found we can onlyhope that the future holds a cure to this disease that can get rid of theburden of the people who live with this day by day in a constant struggle andachieve a peak point toward optimal health.