1- Abstract:In the last years, different Scienceshave been employed and combined to make artificial limbs more efficient, comfortable,and useable. There is always highly effortsto make the artificial limbs Simulatethe reallimbs.
2- A Brief History of Prosthetic:Starting from the first peg legs and hand hooks, and ending withthe modern robotic and Myoelectric prosthetics, the prosthetics are highlyimproved and developed. The ancient Egyptians were the first culture who haveused the prosthetic technology.1 They have made the prostheticlimbs of fiber.
1The Greville Chester Toe was made up of cartonnage and contact ontothe foot in fashion to Egypt sandals. 2 Cartonnage is a materialcomparable to paper and is made of layers of linen or papyrus covered inplaster. 2 The purpose from this prosthetics was to maintainphysical wholeness in both their lives on Earth and in the afterlife.there is a wide believe that most of old prosthetics in the pastwere not functional prosthetic and they were used for cosmetic reasons,although some new discovery of an old prosthetic toe in an Egyptian mummy Indicates that some of this old prosthetic could have a real functional.1In 1858, the scientists have discovered an old artificialleg at Capua in Italy. This artificial leg has a wooden core and it was made ofbronze and iron. It is dating to about 300 B.
C.1Ambroise Paré who was working in the French Army as asurgeon is the father of modern prosthetic surgery.1 At 1529 he popularized new amputationprocedures to the medical community.1 At 1536 he had createdprostheses for upper and lower amputees.1He had also created an above-kneedevice which was adjustable and had fixed position, actually this device had alot of features that are used in now in medical devices.1 Thisabove-knee device is shown is figure 1. Figure1: The above-knee device that has been created by Ambroise Paré.1 After the World War II, The needing ofdeveloping new Prosthetic has been increased.
1The government of United States of America has made a contract with companiesto develop prosthetic.1 Today’s modern devices have less weight,and consists of different types of materials with modern microprocessors andcomputer chips.1 Prosthesesbecome more realistic by covering it with silicone to be able to mimic theappearance of real limbs to provide amputees with the most functional devicesand help them to return to the normal lifestyle.1 Prosthetic devices are common in both medical and engineeringfields. 2 These days many parts of a body can be replaced by a prosthetic.
2 Manufacturing process of prosthetic limbs becomes precise task tochoose a certain material that fit particular needs of a user’s and improvingtheir quality of life which they can’t achieve their tasks due to theirdisability. 3- The MaterialsMaterials, polymers, and ceramics and areprimary Materials that could be used in prosthetic fabrication. 4 Carbon fibers could be alsoused. 4 There are different types of metals which could be used in the prosthetic limbs such as: Aluminum,Titanium, Magnesium, Copper, and Steel.
4 They are used fordifferent applications and in different amount. 4 In the pastcopper, aluminum and iron were be used for the load bearing structure of theprosthetic, but now it used for primarily as alloys or for plating to give morestrength on a prosthetic. 4 In general , the most favorite metals to form the bulk prosthetic is titanium due to its properties. Ithas good strength to weight and density ratio, also it has light weight and lowdensity and good to resist corrosion. 4 It has low modulus of elasticity propertywhich makes it similar to the bone. 4 This will allow the load to be distributedbetween the bone and the implant which make the gait similar to the naturalgait. 4Polymers are used in different application.
It could beused in coating the final product to giveit the appearance of the skin. 4 When the prosthetic need to be waterproof,it could be coated using special type of polymers. The common polymer which isused for this propose is Polyethylene (PE). 4 It’s flexible more than plastic. 4Carbon fibers have many properties that canuse in prosthetic limbs such as stiffness, high tensile strength, high chemicalresistance and low weight. 4 it susceptible to resist suddenly forcesacting on it.
However carbon fibers are more costly in compared with othermaterial with the same properties. 44- Myoelectric Prosthetic: Figure2: Examples of different types of Myoelectric hands a.OttobockDMC Plus. b.Touchbionics iLimb. .
3 In 1940s and because of the highly development in computer devices and the algorithms science, Myoelectric upper limbs prosthesis has been developed.3 A Myoelectricprosthesis is a special type of prosthesis which uses the electrical tensiongenerated by a muscle contraction as order to move. 3 Using one muscle group, amputee’s will beable to control and open a Myoelectric prosthesis hand and close the Myoelectric prosthesis hand,some new developed systems could provide wrist movement.
3 Some differenttypes of Myoelectric prosthesis are shown in figure 2.In the mid-1970s a special pattern has beendeveloped to analyze the useful information that is presented in theelectromyographic (EMG). 3 This information could be used to makemore movements in different degrees. This technique is not widely used thisdays because it needs high processing power. 3 Some disadvantages of this prosthesis is during daily living the armcould be affected by several changes, like re-positioning of the electrodewhich could affect the accuracy of pattern recognition.
3 Figure3: Asimple illustration of the control strategies for Myoelectric prosthesis.3 The advantages of changing intensity ofmuscular contractions has been used to design a type of this prosthesis whichknown as on/off control or crisp control prosthesis. 3 An Activation thresholds determine theactions of the Myoelectric prosthesis.
3 For example if the muscle slightly contracted the hand Myoelectricprosthesis will close. If the muscle strongly contracted the hand Myoelectricprosthesis will open. If no contractionoccurred in the muscle the prosthesis will be slightly contract.
Figure3 shows a better illustration for this example. More movements in different degrees could be evolved if different muscle group and more electrodes have been used. 3Another different way to developing algorithms to analyze EMG signals is to record it from individual muscle groups.
3This could occurred by implanting electrodes inside thebody, or by isolating the interest muscles nerves’ and amplify their signals.3 This could gives better EMG signals since the subcutaneous fat couldaffect the EMG signals quality. 35-Actions from thoughts:Neuroscientists for a long time have interested in using brainsignals to control artificial devices.
5 One of the most importanttechnique which is used to do this call hybrid brain–machine interfaces (HBMIs).5 “The word ‘hybrid’ reflects the fact that theseapplications rely on continuous interactions between living brain tissue andartificial electronic or mechanical devices”.5 The HBMIs combinetwo types of application, the first type of HBMIs is a human-made devices which generated electrical signals and transmitit to the brain tissue in order to transmit some specific type of sensoryinformation to mimic a real human nerve and sensory function.
5 Animportant example for this type is an auditory prosthesis. 5 Thesecond type of HBMIs is a the real-time and processing of the brain activitiesto control artificial devices. An important example for this type would be theusing of neural signals from the motor cortex to control the movements of aprosthetic arm or leg in real time. 5 A general description andorganization of a type 2 HBMI is shown in figure 4 .The applications thatrequire alternate interaction between the brain and artificial devices willhave both type 1 and 2 HBMIs. 5 Figure4: A general description and organization of the type 2 HBMI .5 Unfortunately, the common non-invasive electrophysiological methods to measure the electrical activity of theneurons in cortex, such as scalp EEG recordings, lack the required resolutionwhich needed to control a robotic arm in real time. 5 For thisreason, multichannel intracranial recorders of brain activity are surgicallyimplanted to provide a raw brain signals to use it in the HBMIs.
5It is important to design an appropriate instrumentation for recording andprocessing the raw brain signals in real time. 5 This could bedone using VLSI chips, VLSI is defined as : “very large-scale integration,the process of integrating hundreds of thousands of components on a single siliconchip.”5 This neurochip must be small tobe implanted it in patients and it must work with replaceable batteries.5 It must be also wireless.5 A prototype of this neurochip is shown infigure 5. Figure5: A prototype of neurochip for processing brain signals.
5 After the processing and analyzing of signal was done using theneurochip, the neurochip sends the data to robotic prosthetic processer, usingthis data and by using some specific mathematical algorithm, the roboticprosthetic processer compute the three-dimensional movement and start to move.5 Figure 6shows a brief explanation of neurorobotic prosthetic working method. Figure6:A brief explanation of neurorobotic prosthetic working method. 56-Flex-Foot: Figure7: Flex-foot is used in running competition. 6In 1984 the first Flex-Foot was invented. 6 The purpose of this developed prosthesis is tomake better rehabilitation for an amputee and make them able to run and to let them compete in running competition.
6 A running competition for amputees isshown in figure 7. 6 This prosthesis is made from carbon fibre which is light-weightand strong material. 7 6 The Flex-Foot was designed in a way that makes it gives more deflection, which improves the mechanism of running. 6 , the Flex-Foot has been designed in a mechanical method thatgives it the ability to store potential energy using the amputee steps’, this will help the amputee to run and jump more easily.
6This type of prosthesis has obviously evolved in the last years. 6 A brief developmenthistory of the Flex-foot is shown in figure 8. 6 Figure8: The development history of theFlex-foot. 6 The Flex-Foot is better than normal prosthetic, because it provideshigher walking and running speeds and consume less energy. 6 The produceroffers 18 different types of this prosthesis, every type is different from theother in the stiffness.
6 The right type is chosen according to theweight of the athlete. 6 6- Conclusion: 7- Reference:1 Norton, K., 2007. A brief history of prosthetics. InMotion, 17(7),pp.11-13.2 Finch,J.
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(2015). Lightmetals for the functional requirements of developing world lower extremitypaediatric prosthetics: A review of current material ; technologytrends. Materials Science Forum, 828-?829, 499-?5055 Nicolelis, M.A., 2001. Actions from thoughts. Nature,409(6818), pp.
403-407.6 Lechler, K. and Lilja, M., 2008. Lower extremity legamputation: an advantage in running? Sports Technology, 1(4?5), pp.229-234.
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