1. Introduction


 Nowadays, smoking among adolescents were an
epidemic around the world. However, students, who experience with using tobacco
were at high risk to grow a regular smoking and to maintain smoking in
parenthood. Cigarettes was understood the only product, which was legally and also
it was one of the most prevalence things with adolescents. According to United
States where accounted for 3,800 persons per day under 18 years old try to use
cigarettes; a very large majority of people who were daily smokers by the age
of 18 years (Ganley & Rosario, 2013). Thus, the purpose of this paper is
carried out to discuss about the causes and negative effects of smoking among


2. Discussion of findings


2.1 Background
information about smoking among teenagers

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Today, there
yet has been definition about using cigarettes among adolescents. Using tobacco
among students, which is one of the biggest problem all around the world has
ever been encountered. It may cause by social factor or personality. Smoking in
adolescent age can lead to some effects such as physical effects and emotional
changes. (Obaid et al., 2010). Similar, many teenagers are coping with stress
to use of addictive substances.


Shocking with
statistics had been published to show how popular this problem was.  According to the Substance Abuse & Mental
Health Services Administration (2009), which make up just over 80% of adult
smoker were using tobacco before under 18 years. While in the Global
School-based Student Health Survey in UAE (2005), the proportions of students
who used any cigarettes one or more days over one month was made up 12.7% and
about 9.3% of students who had used tobacco. Meanwhile, an awful figure by the
Global Youth Tobacco Survey showed in the 1999-2009 period, twenty one percent
of boys who used cigarettes, which was slightly more than the proportions of
girls who used cigarettes too, with 17%. As European Tobacco Control Report
(2007, 12.), the proportion of weekly smoking in boys was higher than that in
girls in some countries in eastern European. Statistics illustrated that more
than half of adolescents under 18 years old founded using addictive substances
and most of them led to daily smokers (Rashid & Azizah, 2011). According to
World Health Organization (WHO), Smoking habits resulted to over 4 million
deaths worldwide. In addition to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC), the percentages of students who smoking was accounted for 7.9% for
primary school and it was three times as large as the proportions of high
school student.


2.2. Possible causes
of smoking among teenagers


smoking cigarettes was very dangerous, many teenagers were still using it to
overcome some problems. The causes of smoking among adolescents are similar to
many other addictive traditional types. Some major causes why students using
this substance, specifically as a way out for them to overcome their problem in
real life, company of friends and also the parental control (Khurshid &
Ansari, 2012). The influence of parents to child was very important. Teenagers,
who lack in parental interest usually find negative factors to solve it.
Khurshid and Ansari (2012) indicated the figure about smoking habits of
children. The results figured out 27.8% popularity among the off-springs in
parents, which using tobacco and the figure showed that it made up 7,2% among
the kid at the age of 12 and two-thirds in teenagers. While the development of
personality among adolescents affected to why they smoke. Changing in view of
adults and adolescents in themselves led to some circumstances. They want to be
master of their life, so many people were very difficult to direct them. From
that point, they encounter with stress and attention disorder, so tobacco
became a vital factors tool to deal with traumas of life or else smoke became a
lifestyle and tobacco is the things may indispensable when they party or hang
out with friends. Vasilopoulos, Gourgoulianis, Hatzoglou and Roupa (2015)
pointed that 7.2% of teenagers who like to smoke with their friends. According
to the Forza, teenagers using cigarettes to detect rules of their friends. For
they, smoking was just a kind of factors to address problem of their life or
for fun.


there are some additional reasons for the popularity of smoking among
adolescents. The first cause was that the influences of advertising in smoking
tobacco among teenagers. It was the fact that teenagers spent most of their
free time in watching TV and reading magazine, so they suffered with many
advertising about smoking-related. In addition to study by Dukan (1997) that
having significant contributed in using addictive substances. In the channel,
MTV, the advertising related to smoking activities made up just over a-fifth.
While children also using tobacco will use the most popular advertising brands,
which emphasizes that advertising strategy may affect adolescents to use
cigarettes as adults (Vasilopoulos et al., 2015). Basically, the second cause
given by Rashid and Azizah (2011) that the development of living-standard led
to children smoking. The percentages of students who use cigarettes was
significantly increased in the developed countries such as USA and Japan were
estimated that over a half of their student using tobacco in school. While
there was an increasing trend in school at Bahrain. Smoking influenced on
economic stipulation. There was an increase in smoking among students at the
family have the high income.


 2.3. Effects of smoking among teenagers


is one of major causes of many diseases world early” (Lamin, Othman &
Othman, 2014). Using cigarettes was the most popular cause of disease and fatal
in many countries. Even though using cigarettes led to disorder, almost all
students who said that they truly agreed that using addictive substances led to
many diseases of cancer but they still used it.


The direct
and most typical  impacts of using
cigarettes among adolescents was health. The connection between using tobacco
and health conditions such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, stomach ulcers,
diabetes or may diseases other (Egbe, Petersen & Meyer-Weitz, 2016). In
another study by World Health Organization (WHO), the short-term effects of
using addictive substances among adolescents was respiratory, nicotine abuse
and the relationship with risk of drug use. While the long-term effects were
said that students who smoked have reduction lung function. 


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