1.1  EFFECT OF INDUSTRIALISATION ONENVIRONMENT  Environmental degradation and economicgrowth have a dichotomous relationship with each other. That is, on one hand,economic growth leads to improvement in environmental quality by generatingsocietal pressures for enhanced environmental conduct, making resourcesaccessible for environmental investments and formulating policy changes. On theother hand, growth may result in environmental degradation through excessiveutilisation of natural resources and significant pollution generation.Continuous degradation of natural environment is a result of economicdevelopment due to immense industrialization (Agarwal, 1999).

  The rise in a number of industries has led toacute pollution of water bodies which poses as a serious environmental problem(Ganesh & Baskaran, 2009). Land pollution is caused by industries dumpingwastes in open regions which get drained into the soil and pollute the groundwater as well as the soil. The industrial sector in India is one of thelargest in the world, consuming around 36% of the total energy produced andreleases large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (Jakhar, 2014).India ranks fourth in the world in terms of global consumption of industrial energy.The nature of industry waste differs according to the type of raw materialused, process implemented, and final product manufactured.

The liquid waste dischargedfrom industries into rivers and other water bodies is usually without appropriatetreatment, being  contaminated,unsuitable for usage, and not easily biodegradable. These industrial effluentsare usually beyond the natural assimilation capacity of water bodies resultingin pollution of the ecosystem and negatively affecting the health of people inhabitingthe surrounding areas. Sometimes the residue and waste can be recycled to acertain degree but the challenges and opportunities still remain. The idea ofpollution prevention requires that aversion to pollution must be established atthe very beginning, that is, at the stage of raw material selection.

Dischargelimits of effluents should be effectively implemented by the pollution controlboard. This can be achieved by installing effluent treatment machinery andcontrol systems designed to present the effluent quality which would satisfythe Pollution Control Board’s tolerance limit for industrial discharges. Bhopal Gas Disasterof 1984 is unequivocally one of the worst industrial tragedies resulting in2,500 to 6,000 deaths fatalities and injuring more than  200,000 people due to exposure to leakedpoisonous methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas from the Union Carbide pesticide plant, ownedby The DOW Chemical Company (Mishra et al., 2009; De, 2012).1.3 MAJORENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES Amongst the various functions of an environmentis to provide humans with a sustenance base, waste repository, and habitat. Overuseof either of these functions results in environmental problems which manifest asresource degradation, pollution, and overpopulation (Dunlap & Jorgenson, 2012).

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India is one of the mostvulnerable countries to climate change due to her varied socio-economic status,topography, and compromised policy implementation (Fischlin et al., 2007; INCCA, 2010). Almost 50% of the populationof India is dependent on climate-sensitive sectors like agriculture, etc.(Bureau of Labour Statistics, 2010). Carbon dioxide emissions from fuelcombustion in India have tripled between 1990 and 2011. Emissions are expectedto further rise 2.

5 times in the next 17 years, that is, between 2008 and 2035(IEA, 2013). The crucial environmental issues currently being experiencedaround the globe are as discussed below:1.3.1 PollutionForcenturies, human has exploited the Global Commons, that is, the air, land, andwater along with treating it as a dumping ground, assuming the absorptivepotential of the Global Commons (especially the oceans and atmosphere) wouldinevitably biodegrade the wastes.

But due to changing nature of pollution andpopulation growth, this assimilative property of the ecosystem has started tovary considerably, particularly since the appearance of industrial societies.Environmental activists claim that one of the major problems of modern times ishuman-creation of environmental pollution which requires urgent attention. Usually,it is cheaper to control pollution emissions than to abate it after generationor to treat further the receiving environment. 1.3.

1.1Air Pollution and Noise Pollution: Primary air pollutantscomprise of undesirable solid, liquid, or gaseous particulate matter that is disperseddirectly into the atmosphere from source like nitrogen, sulphur, lead, cadmium,hydrocarbons, etc. Secondary air pollutants also comprise undesirableparticulate matter that is generated by chemical reactions of primary pollutantsin the atmosphere such as, ozone, sulphur trioxide, etc. Ozone is formed in thetroposphere which is the lower part of the atmosphere. Troposphere is differentfrom ozone layer found in the upper part of the atmosphere (stratosphere).

Predominantly, air pollution is caused by emissions from industrial processes,immoderate consumption activities, and use of fossil energy. However, thedeeper causes arise from institutional shortcomings, multiplicity of policies,and regulatory deficiencies. In humans, air pollutants cause a number ofhealth problems such as weakening of the immune system, skin allergies,influenza, cold, nausea, inflammation of the respiratory tract, etc. Airpollution on a wide scale results in ozone layer depletion, global warming, andacid rain along with decreasing yield and growth of crops, thereby causing theplants to die prematurely. Specifically, the detrimental effects depend on theduration of exposure, the concentration of pollutants, and the type oforganism. Particulate matter of size 2.

5 micrometres (uM) or less isaccountable for causing the most damage to human health (Indian CentralPollution Control Board, CPCB). Irritation, respiratory symptoms, damage tolungs, inflammation, and premature deaths, etc. can be caused by inhaling theseminute particulates deep into the lungs. WHO reported that in India 527,700deaths are caused by air pollution every year (Mannarswamy, 2011).

World HealthOrganization’s air pollution database (2014) listed Delhi as the most pollutedcity in the world (WHO, 2014).