1.1.Introduction:The gender gap in workplace represents an important issue that has a significant effect on the world’s’ economy. Women are more than half of the world workforce, and female university graduates are more than Male graduates (Omran, Alizadeh and Esmaeeli, 2015). Men have more opportunities for employment and promotions than women according to (Table 1). Thus, women are suffering from lack of opportunities in the workplace, and that contributes to a fall in the world economy. Therefore, giving women more opportunities in the workplace will improve Iran and lead it to the direction of gender equality where women and men can participate fully, develop, and create a sustainable country.1 83442 Ben Windle FC/PM511 (Olson and Becker, 1983)1.2.AimsThis recommendation report aims to make a comparison between two suggested intervention methods for decreasing gender gap in the workplace in the Islamic Republic of Iran while considering equal opportunities and promotions for both genders. The Islamic Republic of Iran was ranked the 139 out of 144 countries in the global gender gap ranking according to (World economic forum, 2016) Thus; the gender gap in Iran is huge. A recommendation will be made after careful analysis of the suggested methods with regards to public acceptance and effectiveness. 3 83442 Ben Windle FC/PM511 2.Background:The most recent statistic shows that the female share of the labour force is less than 20%, noticeably below the world average of 45% and only 3.5 million Iranian women are salaried workers, in comparison with 23.5 million Iranian men (Middle East Institute, 2018). The Iranian women only occupy 5.8% in the parliament, which shows that they are extremely underrepresented in the decision-making process. This is a problem because as a result of women not getting treated equally in the workplace women don’t have enough opportunities for employment and their chances in promotions are low due to their difference in gender. (Burkova, 2017) stated that women in Iran are diminished in leading positions and private sector directors, even though Iranian women’s have shown great achievements in higher education and have shown their abilities this demonstrates their capacity and dedication to be equal partners in building a better country, but discriminatory laws are holding them back (Human Rights Watch, 2018).In addition to this, the education of Muslim women is more difficult to accept in societies like the Islamic Republic of Iran, where women are restricted from pursuing the education in certain fields like science, math, engineering (Shahidian, 2018). This is a problem due to the fact that Iran will never be able to be a developed country if this does not change, but by teaching them STEM subjects this will help them and appoint them with the latest knowledge and new skills in tough fields which will develop Iran into a rapid change and modernization. 4 83442 Ben Windle FC/PM511 3.Options 3.1 Promote females to study STEM subjects and introduce more programs:A first option the Iranian government can force is to promote girls into a higher level of education this will result in the increase in women’s entitlement in the workplace with a more ensured and powerful position in the near future by encouraging them to study STEM subjects such as science, math, and engineering.3.2 Gender Quotas:A second option the Iranian government can offer is to put out Gender Quotas. According to (EIGE, 2018) gender quotas is a legislation that was defined as equalising job progression and promotions by raising the number of places on boards for women. Gender quotas take a good advantage of women’s abilities by increasing their chances to work in boards. 4.Requirements:4.1 Effectiveness:The first criteria for analysing the options is effectiveness. Effectiveness is described as accomplishing a purpose and target to come to a conclusion over an issue. Effectiveness is considerable as a result of solving a problem in a quick, immediate way. In this situation, Effectiveness is also important to the government to pass a law in an efficient, and productive way.4.2 Public Acceptance:The second criteria for analysis of options will be Public acceptance. Public acceptance is described as the passive or active approval of the people and citizens of an idea or opinion. Any changes that are made but with the acceptance of the community. Public acceptance is important for the sake of the government when publicly announcing a new law they must persuade a lot of its citizens to come to terms with its new big idea. Thus, public acceptance is a significant factor in any method owing to the fact that if people refused the idea it wouldn’t have an impact on the problem (Kickhöfer, 2008).583442 Ben Windle FC/PM511 5. Comparison:5.1 Effectiveness:Based on the criteria of Effectiveness, Iranian government offering to put out Gender Quotas is the preferred option. Gender quotas rely mostly on its effectiveness to be used within the political system by countries to achieve equal representation by both female and male legislators in the government (Wikigender.org, 2018). In 2011 the number of women in Iran in the parliament was total of 8 women, leaving the percentage with 3%. Not only is it low in the parliament but in addition to that the number of women in the ministerial positions was even lower in 2010 with only 1, and the percentage of women in ministerial positions being 3% (Unicef.org, 2018). Quotas have now been achieved successfully in many other different countries for instance in 2003 Norway became the first country in the world to establish a gender quota where they demanded 500 firms, including 175 firms listed to raise the number of women on their boards to 40% (U.S., 2018). This caused a chaos in the Norwegian business community, as a result of that there was a penalty for the ones who were not following orders. One of the penalties was if a company did not obey the rules, it would be shut down. Not only did this lead to a change in Norway but in fact in other countries as well including Italy, the Netherlands and Spain they followed with this conclusion which helped women from reaching top business positions. In addition to that in Ireland, the first election that was held in 2011 started with 115 women applicants, and the political parties later had to put a decision that 30% gender quota for the applicants or they have their state funding cut by half. Compared to the 15% elected in 2011 now more than 22% of TDs in the 32nd Dáil will be female (The Irish Times, 2018). Despite the merits of promoting females to study STEM subjects motivating young girls to study difficult subject would lead them into the industry of education which will also help the gap Iran presently is facing. However this preferred option is still best in terms of reducing gender inequality in workplace due to the fact that gender quotas would help eradicate discrimination and will start giving new opportunities for women to work outside of their expectations, and if Iran made this step it will open doors for many women in the workplace to reach much higher positions. 6 83442 Ben Windle FC/PM511 5.2 Public Acceptance:Based on the criteria of Public acceptance, promoting females to study STEM subjects and is the preferred option. By the reason of women representing over half of the world’s population (Data The World Bank, 2018). Roughly half of Iran’s student population has been women, however, women in Iran still face gender inequality but some still try to break out of traditional gender roles and start their education. The high number of female students is a threat to Iran’s male social order that even some universities had aimed to “de-feminize” education meaning not include women in their circle of education. In 2012, 33 public universities banned women from programs in 77 academic fields, along with engineering, accounting, and chemistry, in addition to that they also requested to limit women’s options for education inside Iran (WENR, 2018). The advantage of promoting women into STEM education and careers moves Iran to the right path of fixing the gender equality in education where they all can cooperate equally, and create a developed country. One of the main reason there is a gender inequality is because there are historical attitudes concerning the education of girls and by providing these programs this will also help the cultural idea of girls improvement and teaching in many core subjects (Everyculture.com, 2018). A great example is the Athena Swan program for instance, a UK national scheme which is a possible resource for helping women enter, guide, and advance women’s careers in the STEM fields such as science, engineering, technology, math, in higher education (Equality Challenge Unit, 2018). On October 2017 the success rate on the bronze award with 53%, silver award with 41.7%, and the gold award with 24.1%. And now currently holding a total of 399 bronze, 178 silver, and 10 gold award (Equality Challenge Unit, 2018). Even though it started with ten members the Athena Swan had made a progressing impact and is in the movement with advancing to build a culture where everyone can evolve through their careers. Despite the merits of the Iranian government putting out Gender Quotas, they are also useful for public acceptance as a result to that Quotas are enforced in order to correct a previous gender imbalance in different areas and at different levels if the majority of the people do not agree with a new idea. They also promote women to equal access in training opportunities or 783442 Ben Windle FC/PM511 jobs (EIGE, 2018). However this preferred option is still best in terms of reducing gender inequality in the workplace in a civil way by creating movements, and building up small programs this will help encourage and motivate the women in Iran instead of decreasing their abilities in education. By promoting gender equality and empowering these young girls and women through their education by studying these STEM subjects that can make a big impact not only to the women but also by coming together as one they will help make for a more developed country and a balance of level of education for both men and women. 6. Conclusion:Enforcing gender quotas will encourage putting an end to discrimination and will start giving new opportunities for women to work in higher workplace positions.Quotas should be enforced in order to balance the different areas and at different levels of workplace areas, this will also be a good advantage of women’s abilities by increasing their chances to work. Norway became the first country in the world to establish a gender quota followed by other countries such as Italy, the Netherlands and Spain. This helped the equality of gender roles in commanding, controlling positions. 33 public universities banned women in Iran from programs in 77 academic fields.7. Recommendation:Based on the analysis conducted in this report, enforcing gender quotas in Iran is the preferred option.