1.1 Germany The subsidy for purchase of a BEV aswell as a FCV is EUR1 4,000. This amount isshared between the government and the carmaker. This means that the salescontract must indicate that the carmaker has reduced the car price by half ofthe overall incentive amount (EUR 2,000), and then the owner can apply for thesecond half of the incentive 29 at the limit of 400 000 carsuntil 2020 or EUR 600 million 19.Government also provides incentives in the form of tax exemption, free parkingand access to bus lines 19.As of April 2017, Germany has 33constructed hydrogen refueling stations, 12 under construction and 10 inapplication process 30.Table 11 shows the number of charging points in Germany.
Table11. Number of charging points in Germany 19 Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Publicly accessible slow chargers 1500 2400 2606 4787 16550 Publicly accessible fast charger s 18 47 317 784 1403 Total 1518 2447 2923 5571 17953 Table 12shows the Number of FCVs inGermany from 2013 to 2017. Table12. Number of FCVs in Germany30 Year (beginning of) Number of FCVs 2013 288 2014 295 2016 333 2016 399 2017 477 Table 13shows BEV and PHEV stock inGermany from 2012 20 2016. Table13. BEV and PHEV stock inGermany (2012-2016) 19 year Number of BEVs and PHEVs (thousands) 2012 5.
26 (70% BEV, 30% PHEV) 2013 12.19 (75% BEV, 25% PHEV) 2014 24.93 (70% BEV, 30% PHEV) 2015 48.12 (62% BEV, 38% PHEV) 2016 72.
73 (562% BEV, 44% PHEV) The development of HRSs in Germany is supported by H2Mobility which is a joint venture between six industrial partners 31.This program is pursued in three phases:· Phase 0: enhancing R&Dand demonstration activities; · Phase 1: market preparationand validation; · Phase 2: attractingexternal investors. Government is planning to invest 300 million euros inextending the network of fast-recharging stations 32.
The estimated numbers of cars and HRS announced in 2012 33Table 14shows HRS and FCV deployment for the H2-Mobility roll-out plan in Germanythrough 2030. Table14. HRS and Car deploymentfor the H2-Mobility roll-out plan in Germany through 2030 33 year 2020 2030 Number of FCVs (thousands) 150 1,800 Number of HRSs 400 1000 In more recentpublications, a target of 400 HRSs for 2023 is announced 34.
The German Federal Government has the target of putting one million electricvehicles on the road by 2020, and possibly reaching over five million by 2030 35.In a report published by Republic of Korea ministry of environment 23,the FCV target for Germany was mentioned as 650,000 by 2025 and 1.8 million by2030 which seems optimistic considering the current number of FCVs in Germany. 1.2 France In France,there is a bonus-malus system based on type-approval CO2 emissions.Vehicles with CO2 emission between 0 and 20 g perkilometer receive a bonus of 27% of their purchase price up to €6300. This category includes 100% electric vehicles (BEVsand FCVs).
Vehicles with CO2 emissionsbetween 21 and 60 g/km are eligible to a bonus covering 20% of theirpurchase price up to EUR 4000. This categoryincludes PHEVs. Vehicles with CO2 emissions above131 g/km are subject to increased taxes which can mount up to EUR 8,000 3637 38.France has anational implementation plan based on a cluster model approach 39.
This approach is deployed in three phases. In the first phase, infrastructuredevelopment is focused on local fleets in the early years. In that sense, HRSsand FCVs are deployed based on the identification of local clients. This methodguarantees that a good HRS load factor is achievable from the beginning of theproject 39.In thismethod, Fleet vehicles with predictable driving and refueling patterns whichmake regular visits to a refueling station are defined in a cluster. Then oneor multiple HRSs are responsible to support a cluster. Figure1. HRS supporting vehicle clusters-method considered in France’s HRS planning 39In the second phase, clusters are linked together and in thethird phase, FCV full scale commercialization is pursued.
A considerableamount of funding for the development of HRSs in France is from Europeanfunding. A European funding for 3 hydrogen refueling stations in Rodez,Sarreguemines and Paris under the 35 MEUR H2 Mobility Europe project, with thebalance met by private sector companies within the Mobilité Hydrogène Francecoalition is secured. Another European funding of 4M EUR is from the ConnectingEurope Facility for the deployment of 15 stations in the Normandy region 40.In France,financial incentives can take the form of a tax credit equivalent to 30% of ahome charger or subsidies for the installation of residential or workplacechargers 19.Frenchenvironmental and energy agency (ADEME) covers 50% of costs for normal and fastcharging points for BEVs and 30% of costs for rapid charge points if thechargers are publicly available. The “Ville dedemain” project run by the French environmental and energy agency ADEME covers50% of costs for normal and fast charging points for BEVs and 30% of costs forrapid charge points, provided these are publicly available 41.As of November2016, there were 14 HRSs in France 42.
Table 15 shows the number of charging points in France from2012 to 2016. 1Exchange rate for Euro in December 6th, 2017 is 1 EUR ~ 1.18 USD