1.0 Abstract Traditionally and technically, sucrose is used as the main sugar in jams preparation. However excessive consumption of those sucrose has lead to several diseases, therefore its replacement by stevia is an attractive solution. Not to deny, substitution of sucrose can cause several changes in jam’s preparation in term of texture, structure, and flavor of the jams, thus making them less attractive to the consumers as the original ones are more favorable. The objectives of this proposal to propose a development of strawberry jams with more adequate nutritional profile, maintaining their textural and flavor characteristics in comparison with the traditional formulation. Sucrose is replaced by stevia, given the product different nutritional profiles which are claim to have a potential low glycemic index, reduced calories, and enrichment with dietary fiber.
The sensorial evaluation will conclude that the stevia used interfered, significantly, in the parameters measured. Nevertheless, sensorial tests are needed to be conducted as the uses of these stevia for jams production may help at industrial level. 2.0 Research Problem The uses of sucrose as main sugar in strawberry jams are just for preservation and textural beauty with lacks of health. Instead of reducing the amount of usage that eventually will turns jam into bad condition, we suggest to replace the sucrose with stevia treatment. 3.0 Research Question As we know, stevia is a sugar-free but have almost identical properties with sugars especially with their sweet taste.
2 liquid tablespoon of stevia can give the almost exact sweet taste to 2 cups of sugar consume. But, does stevia is the best replacement of sucrose in strawberry jams? 4.0 Research Objectives To develop strawberry jams with more adequate nutritional profile, maintaining their textural and flavor characteristics in comparison with the traditional formulation using stevia as sucrose replacement in strawberry jams To determine the textural characteristics of sucrose replacement by stevia in strawberry jams To identify consumer sensory profile in sucrose replacement by stevia in strawberry jams 5.0 Hypothesis There will be slightly significant changes in the texture, structure, and flavor of stevia used in strawberry jams compared to the original ones that used sucrose. Besides, the consumer cannot detect taste different between stevia strawberry jam and original strawberry jam. Thus, the consumer will accept the sucrose replacement by stevia in strawberry jams.
6.0 Literature Review 6.1 Rosaceae familyDiet with high intake of vegetables and fruits may reduce some health risk such as risk antioxidant stress-related disease. Instead of Malaysian local fruits such as rambutans and durians, the Rosaceae family, including raspberry, cherries and also strawberries are economically important and highly appreciated fruits. They are being highly appreciated due to their pleasant aromas and flavors. Besides, they also provided important source of nutrients. They are high content in fibers, various vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals while have low content in fats, calories and proteins.
Additionally, they are also rich in natural antioxidants encompassing vitamins and carotenoids.Strawberry (genus Fragaria) are native to tempered region and cultivate varieties are widely grown throughout the world. Strawberry are rich with Vitamin C are often being consume freshly as dessert fruits besides being preserve in many ways such as jam product. Strawberry consumption may lower rates of hypertension, blood LDL cholesterol level and decrease cardiovascular disease risks. 6.2 Jam preservation effect However, these fruits are perishable and lack of appropriate technique for storage that can cause great loses in their benefits. Fruit preservation techniques especially jam production can extend their shelf life over years for continuity of consumption.
High concentration of sugar,usually sucrose are being consume in order to get the best and longest storage life term. This action may be lead consumers and buyers to several adverse effect on their health such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease which are counter benefits of the strawberry itself. Therefore, in this work, we will replace those sugar with stevia which claimed to be more healthier. 6.
3 Sucrose In traditional jam making, sucrose is used to bind water, including gelatinization of pectin, besides inhibit and retard the microbial growth and subsequent deterioration of jams by reducing the water activity as low as near to 0.8. Simply lowering this amount of sugar in this jam production completely will not produce an acceptable reduced-sugar jellies product. This is because, this action may lead to growth of mold that will effect the jam. 6.
4 SteviaStevia is a small perennial shrub that has been used for centuries as a bio-sweetener and for other medical uses such as to lower blood sugar ( Goyal SK, Samsher, Goyal RK, Feb 2010 ). Stevioside, a white crystalline compound is the natural herbal sweetener without any calories and it is over 100-300 times sweeter than table sugar. Stevia is a high potency sweetener for the food product market in the future as its leaves and plants have functional and sensory properties which are superior to those of other sweetener. 6.
5 JamThe word “jam” alludes to a product made of whole fruit cut into pieces or smashed, that point heated with water and sugar to initiate its pectin before being put into containers. Jams are normally produced from pulp and juice of one fruit, instead of a mix of several fruits. Good jam has a soft even consistency without distinct pieces of fruit, a bright colour, a good fruit flavour and a semi-jellied texture that is easy to spread but has no free liquid.
. 6.6 Textural Characteristic and Sensorial ProfileTo fulfill consumers’ demand, the food industry must provided its product portfolio offering products with a diversified nutritional and sensorial profile. The emergence of new preservation methods along with new findings in the nutritional with help of modest and latest advanced technologies contributed to improving the population’s quality of life. For this purpose, the sucrose used in traditional or original strawberry jam will be replace by stevia in order to obtain products with better nutritional properties and values, that is, enrichment in dietary fiber and low calories. Besides improving the nutritional properties, it is important to maintain the originality which are the textural and sensorial profile in order to be well accepted by consumers. 7.0 Methodology 7.
1 MaterialsStrawberry are kindly being supply by Shahidan Trading at Kampung Sentosa, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, who are one of Gerai Buah-Buahan Segar (GBBS) program provided by Federal Agriculture Marketing Authority (FAMA). RCC Global (M) Sdn. Bhd., Johor Bahru, Johor with their product Royal Sweetener Stevia provide the stevia supply. 7.2 Methods7.2.
1 Jam MakingAll ingredients and process are same for both sample except the original strawberry jam will use normal table sugar while stevia strawberry jam will use stevia. For each sample, we will use 500 grams of strawberry, 0.1 liter of water, 0.7 grams of pectin, and 0.6 grams of citric acid. For original or control treatment, we will use 750 grams of sugar, while for stevia treatment will use of 50 milliliter of stevia.
The fruits will be cut and chop into fine pulp. Put 500 grams of strawberry pulp into a pot and add 0.1 liter of water into it. Simmer them over slow heat to soften the fruit tissue. In otherwise, mix pectin with 750 grams of sugar and add into the pulp little by little and continue stirring. Cook until the brix reading reach 60°Brix, then add citric acid and continue mixing. Fill jam into container with cover and allow it to cool.
Repeat the steps with 50 milliliter of stevia. 7.2.2 Textural Profile AnalysisSmall amount of strawberry jam samples will be taken after the jam making preparation is done. The samples will be placed in the container of texturometer TA-TX2i, centrally under the probe carrying, then penetration process will be perform.
The probe penetrates the sample to 25mm depth after being triggered by a force of 10g. Penetration forces decay at points where there are breaks in the sample. Distance point of the probe penetrates before reaching The Maximum Force also known as rupture strength will be indicated as sample elasticity. Adhesion or adhesiveness of sample will be measured by the total force after the removal of probe from the sample. 7.2.3 Sensory EvaluationSensory evaluation process will be conducted in a room with booth section that provided material required for each panelists.
60 selected trained panelists consist of 20 males and 40 females panelists. The panelists will test two samples which are strawberry jam with sucrose treatment and strawberry jam with stevia treatment. A tablespoon of each sample will be provided to the panelists.We will conduct Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) Test, which are the one of the most sophisticated of the methodologies that available. This kind of test are being used because it can determine the nature and intensity of the differences.
Throughout this sensory test, panelists need to recognize five main attributions which are colour, texture, aroma, taste and overall. Small piece of bread also will be provide as a carrier for the strawberry jam evaluation. The samples will be given three digits code with its permutation and questionare as given below: